Clinical Oral Investigations

, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 33–42 | Cite as

Serum antibody levels against Porphyromonas gingivalis in patients with and without rheumatoid arthritis – a systematic review and meta-analysis

  • Philip Bender
  • Walter B. Bürgin
  • Anton Sculean
  • Sigrun EickEmail author



Since the peptidyl arginine deiminase of Porphyromonas gingivalis is able to citrullinate peptides and proteins, various studies have suggested the species as a possible link between periodontal disease (PD) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This systematic review including meta-analysis was aimed to evaluate whether differences in terms of antibody titers against P. gingivalis exist between RA patients and systemically healthy individuals with and without PD.

Materials and methods

The following focused question was addressed: Are the antibody titers against P. gingivalis of RA patients different from systemically healthy individuals with and without PD? A systematic data search was conducted in MEDLINE and EMBASE. The collected data underwent a meta-analysis to detect statistically significant differences in terms of antibody levels between the groups.


From 114 articles found by the search 13 articles met the inclusion criteria and provided data suitable for meta-analysis. After analyzing various levels of confinement the meta-analysis revealed a statistically significant higher antibody titer against P. gingivalis in patients suffering from RA in comparison with systemically and periodontally healthy controls (p < 0.01) and systemically healthy patients with PD (p < 0.01).


The present findings indicate that RA is often accompanied by the presence of an immune response against P. gingivalis.

Clinical relevance

The significantly higher antibody response to P. gingivalis in comparison to systemically healthy individuals supports the link between PD and RA by P. gingivalis. Screening of the regularly taken blood samples of RA patients for P. gingivalis antibodies may help to sensitize rheumatologists and RA patients for improving periodontal health.


Porphyromonas gingivalis Periodontal disease Rheumatoid arthritis Serum antibody levels 



The authors acknowledge the work of Bernadette Rawyler, School of Dental Medicine, Resort Multimedia, University of Bern, in preparing graphs.

Compliance with ethical standards


The study was funded by the European Commission (FP7-HEALTH-F3–2012-306,029 “TRIGGER”).

Conflict of interest

Author Philip Bender declares that he has no conflict of interest. Author Walter B. Bürgin declares that he has no conflict of interest. Author Anton Sculean declares that he has no conflict of interest. Author Sigrun Eick declares that she has no conflicts of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

For this type of study, formal consent is not required.


  1. 1.
    de Pablo P, Dietrich T, McAlindon TE (2008) Association of periodontal disease and tooth loss with rheumatoid arthritis in the US population. J Rheumatol 35:70–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dissick A, Redman RS, Jones M, Rangan BV, Reimold A, Griffiths GR, Mikuls TR, Amdur RL, Richards JS, Kerr GS (2010) Association of periodontitis with rheumatoid arthritis: a pilot study. J Periodontol 81:223–230. doi: 10.1902/jop.2009.090309 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pizzo G, Guiglia R, Lo Russo L, Campisi G (2010) Dentistry and internal medicine: from the focal infection theory to the periodontal medicine concept. European journal of internal medicine 21:496–502. doi: 10.1016/j.ejim.2010.07.011 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Snyderman, R MG (1982) Analogous mechanisms of tissue destruction in rheumatoid arthritis and periodontal disease. Book title.,Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jiang P, Li H, Li X (2015) Diabetes mellitus risk factors in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 33:115–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Karlson EW, Lee IM, Cook NR, Manson JE, Buring JE, Hennekens CH (1999) A retrospective cohort study of cigarette smoking and risk of rheumatoid arthritis in female health professionals. Arthritis Rheum 42:910–917. doi: 10.1002/1529-0131(199905)42:5<910::AID-ANR9>3.0.CO;2-D CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Albandar JM, Streckfus CF, Adesanya MR, Winn DM (2000) Cigar, pipe, and cigarette smoking as risk factors for periodontal disease and tooth loss. J Periodontol 71:1874–1881. doi: 10.1902/jop.2000.71.12.1874 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mewar D, Wilson AG (2006) Autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis: a review. Biomed Pharmacother 60:648–655. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2006.09.002 S0753-3322(06)00287-3CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wegner N, Lundberg K, Kinloch A, Fisher B, Malmstrom V, Feldmann M, Venables PJ (2010) Autoimmunity to specific citrullinated proteins gives the first clues to the etiology of rheumatoid arthritis. Immunol Rev 233:34–54. doi: 10.1111/j.0105-2896.2009.00850.xIMR850 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Biyikoglu B, Buduneli N, Aksu K, Nalbantsoy A, Lappin DF, Evrenosoglu E, Kinane DF (2013) Periodontal therapy in chronic periodontitis lowers gingival crevicular fluid interleukin-1beta and DAS28 in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Rheumatol Int. doi: 10.1007/s00296-013-2781-5 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Erciyas K, Sezer U, Ustun K, Pehlivan Y, Kisacik B, Senyurt SZ, Tarakcioglu M, Onat AM (2013) Effects of periodontal therapy on disease activity and systemic inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Oral Dis 19:394–400. doi: 10.1111/odi.12017 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ustun K, Erciyas K, Kisacik B, Sezer U, Pehlivan Y, Oztuzcu S, Gundogar H, Onat AM (2013) Host modulation in rheumatoid arthritis patients with TNF blockers significantly decreases biochemical parameters in periodontitis. Inflammation. doi: 10.1007/s10753-013-9652-9 Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mayer Y, Elimelech R, Balbir-Gurman A, Braun-Moscovici Y, Machtei EE (2013) Periodontal condition of patients with autoimmune diseases and the effect of anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha therapy. J Periodontol 84:136–142. doi: 10.1902/jop.2012.120009 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Savioli C, Ribeiro AC, Fabri GM, Calich AL, Carvalho J, Silva CA, Viana VS, Bonfa E, Siqueira JT (2012) Persistent periodontal disease hampers anti-tumor necrosis factor treatment response in rheumatoid arthritis. J Clin Rheumatol 18:180–184. doi: 10.1097/RHU.0b013e31825828be PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hajishengallis G, Darveau RP, Curtis MA (2012) The keystone-pathogen hypothesis. Nat Rev Microbiol 10:717–725. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro2873 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Guo Y (2000) Nguyen KA and Potempa J (2010) dichotomy of gingipains action as virulence factors: from cleaving substrates with the precision of a surgeon's knife to a meat chopper-like brutal degradation of proteins. Periodontol 54:15–44. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0757.2010.00377.xPRD377 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rosenstein ED, Greenwald RA, Kushner LJ, Weissmann G (2004) Hypothesis: the humoral immune response to oral bacteria provides a stimulus for the development of rheumatoid arthritis. Inflammation 28:311–318. doi: 10.1007/s10753-004-6641-z CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    McGraw WT, Potempa J, Farley D, Travis J (1999) Purification, characterization, and sequence analysis of a potential virulence factor from Porphyromonas gingivalis, peptidylarginine deiminase. Infect Immun 67:3248–3256PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Goulas T, Mizgalska D, Garcia-Ferrer I, Kantyka T, Guevara T, Szmigielski B, Sroka A, Millan C, Uson I, Veillard F, Potempa B, Mydel P, Sola M, Potempa J, Gomis-Ruth FX (2015) Structure and mechanism of a bacterial host-protein citrullinating virulence factor, Porphyromonas gingivalis peptidylarginine deiminase. Sci Rep 5:11969. doi: 10.1038/srep11969 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wegner N, Wait R, Sroka A, Eick S, Nguyen KA, Lundberg K, Kinloch A, Culshaw S, Potempa J, Venables PJ (2010) Peptidylarginine deiminase from Porphyromonas gingivalis citrullinates human fibrinogen and alpha-enolase: implications for autoimmunity in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 62:2662–2672. doi: 10.1002/art.27552 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mikuls TR, Payne JB, Reinhardt RA, Thiele GM, Maziarz E, Cannella AC, Holers VM, Kuhn KA, O'Dell JR (2009) Antibody responses to Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis. Int Immunopharmacol 9:38–42. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2008.09.008S1567-5769(08)00291-9 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hitchon CA, Chandad F, Ferucci ED, Willemze A, Ioan-Facsinay A, van der Woude D, Markland J, Robinson D, Elias B, Newkirk M, Toes RM, Huizinga TW, El-Gabalawy HS (2010) Antibodies to Porphyromonas gingivalis are associated with anticitrullinated protein antibodies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and their relatives. J Rheumatol 37:1105–1112 doi: jrheum.091323 [pii]CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Aletaha D, Neogi T, Silman AJ, Funovits J, Felson DT, Bingham CO 3rd, Birnbaum NS, Burmester GR, Bykerk VP, Cohen MD, Combe B, Costenbader KH, Dougados M, Emery P, Ferraccioli G, Hazes JM, Hobbs K, Huizinga TW, Kavanaugh A, Kay J, Kvien TK, Laing T, Mease P, Menard HA, Moreland LW, Naden RL, Pincus T, Smolen JS, Stanislawska-Biernat E, Symmons D, Tak PP, Upchurch KS, Vencovsky J, Wolfe F, Hawker G (2010) Rheumatoid arthritis classification criteria: an American College of Rheumatology/European league against rheumatism collaborative initiative. Arthritis Rheum 62:2569–2581. doi: 10.1002/art.27584 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Arnett FC, Edworthy SM, Bloch DA, McShane DJ, Fries JF, Cooper NS, Healey LA, Kaplan SR, Liang MH, Luthra HS, et al. (1988) The American rheumatism association 1987 revised criteria for the classification of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 31:315–324CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    SAS Institute Inc. SAS/STAT® (2013) User’s Guide. Version 9.4. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NCGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yusof Z, Porter SR, Greenman J, Scully C (1995) Levels of serum IgG against Porphyromonas gingivalis in patients with rapidly progressive periodontitis, rheumatoid arthritis and adult periodontitis. J Nihon Univ Sch Dent 37:197–200CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Moen K, Brun JG, Madland TM, Tynning T, Jonsson R (2003) Immunoglobulin G and a antibody responses to Bacteroides forsythus and Prevotella intermedia in sera and synovial fluids of arthritis patients. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 10:1043–1050PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ogrendik M, Kokino S, Ozdemir F, Bird PS, Hamlet S (2005) Serum antibodies to oral anaerobic bacteria in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. MedGenMed 7:2 doi: 505458 [pii]PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Okada M, Kobayashi T, Ito S, Yokoyama T, Komatsu Y, Abe A, Murasawa A, Yoshie H (2011) Antibody responses to periodontopathic bacteria in relation to rheumatoid arthritis in Japanese adults. J Periodontol 82:1433–1441. doi: 10.1902/jop.2011.110020 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Arvikar SL, Collier DS, Fisher MC, Unizony S, Cohen GL, McHugh G, Kawai T, Strle K, Steere AC (2013) Clinical correlations with Porphyromonas gingivalis antibody responses in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther 15:R109 doi: ar4289 [pii]CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Laugisch O, Wong A, Sroka A, Kantyka T, Koziel J, Neuhaus K, Sculean A, Venables PJ, Potempa J, Moller B, Eick S (2015) Citrullination in the periodontium-a possible link between periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Oral Investig. doi: 10.1007/s00784-015-1556-7 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Quirke AM, Lugli EB, Wegner N, Hamilton BC, Charles P, Chowdhury M, Ytterberg AJ, Zubarev RA, Potempa J, Culshaw S, Guo Y, Fisher BA, Thiele G, Mikuls TR, Venables PJ (2014) Heightened immune response to autocitrullinated Porphyromonas gingivalis peptidylarginine deiminase: a potential mechanism for breaching immunologic tolerance in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 73:263–269. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2012-202726 [pii]CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Konig MF, Paracha AS, Moni M, Bingham CO 3rd, Andrade F (2015) Defining the role of Porphyromonas gingivalis peptidylarginine deiminase (PPAD) in rheumatoid arthritis through the study of PPAD biology. Ann Rheum Dis 74:2054–2061. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2014-205385 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kharlamova N, Jiang X, Sherina N, Potempa B, Israelsson L, Quirke AM, Eriksson K, Yucel-Lindberg T, Venables PJ, Potempa J, Alfredsson L, Lundberg K (2015) Antibodies to Porphyromonas gingivalis indicate interaction between oral infection, smoking and risk genes in rheumatoid arthritis etiology. Arthritis Rheumatol. doi: 10.1002/art.39491 Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lee JY, Choi IA, Kim JH, Kim KH, Lee EY, Lee EB, Lee YM, Song YW (2015) Association between anti-Porphyromonas gingivalis or anti-alpha-enolase antibody and severity of periodontitis or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity in RA. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 16:190. doi: 10.1186/s12891-015-0647-6 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Seror R, Le Gall-David S, Bonnaure-Mallet M, Schaeverbeke T, Cantagrel A, Minet J, Gottenberg JE, Chanson P, Ravaud P, Mariette X (2015) Association of Anti-Porphyromonas gingivalis antibody titers with nonsmoking status in early rheumatoid arthritis: results from the prospective French cohort of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheumatol 67:1729–1737. doi: 10.1002/art.39118 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Shimada A, Kobayashi T, Ito S, Okada M, Murasawa A, Nakazono K, Yoshie H (2016) Expression of anti-Porphyromonas gingivalis peptidylarginine deiminase immunoglobulin G and peptidylarginine deiminase-4 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis. J Periodontal Res 51:103–111. doi: 10.1111/jre.12288 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Scheres N, Lamont RJ, Crielaard W, Krom BP (2015) LuxS signaling in Porphyromonas gingivalis-host interactions. Anaerobe 35:3–9. doi: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2014.11.011 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Mikuls TR, Thiele GM, Deane KD, Payne JB, O'Dell JR, Yu F, Sayles H, Weisman MH, Gregersen PK, Buckner JH, Keating RM, Derber LA, Robinson WH, Holers VM, Norris JM (2012) Porphyromonas gingivalis and disease-related autoantibodies in individuals at increased risk of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 64:3522–3530. doi: 10.1002/art.34595 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Jeong E, Lee JY, Kim SJ, Choi J (2012) Predominant immunoreactivity of Porphyromonas gingivalis heat shock protein in autoimmune diseases. J Periodontal Res 47:811–816. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0765.2012.01501.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    de Smit M, Westra J, Vissink A, Doornbos-van der Meer B, Brouwer E, van Winkelhoff AJ (2012) Periodontitis in established rheumatoid arthritis patients: a cross-sectional clinical, microbiological and serological study. Arthritis Res Ther 14:R222. doi: 10.1186/ar4061 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lappin DF, Apatzidou D, Quirke AM, Oliver-Bell J, Butcher JP, Kinane DF, Riggio MP, Venables P, McInnes IB, Culshaw S (2013) Influence of periodontal disease, Porphyromonas gingivalis and cigarette smoking on systemic anti-citrullinated peptide antibody titres. J Clin Periodontol 40:907–915. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12138 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Okada M, Kobayashi T, Ito S, Yokoyama T, Abe A, Murasawa A, Yoshie H (2013) Periodontal treatment decreases levels of antibodies to Porphyromonas gingivalis and citrulline in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis. J Periodontol 84:e74–e84. doi: 10.1902/jop.2013.130079 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kobayashi T, Okada M, Ito S, Kobayashi D, Ishida K, Kojima A, Narita I, Murasawa A, Yoshie H (2014) Assessment of interleukin-6 receptor inhibition therapy on periodontal condition in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and chronic periodontitis. J Periodontol 85:57–67. doi: 10.1902/jop.2013.120696 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mikuls TR, Payne JB, Yu F, Thiele GM, Reynolds RJ, Cannon GW, Markt J, McGowan D, Kerr GS, Redman RS, Reimold A, Griffiths G, Beatty M, Gonzalez SM, Bergman DA, Hamilton BC 3rd, Erickson AR, Sokolove J, Robinson WH, Walker C, Chandad F, O'Dell JR (2014) Periodontitis and Porphyromonas gingivalis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheumatol 66:1090–1100. doi: 10.1002/art.38348 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    de Smit M, van de Stadt LA, Janssen KM, Doornbos-van der Meer B, Vissink A, van Winkelhoff AJ, Brouwer E, Westra J, van Schaardenburg D (2014) Antibodies against Porphyromonas gingivalis in seropositive arthralgia patients do not predict development of rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 73:1277–1279. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2013-204594 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kimura Y, Yoshida S, Takeuchi T, Kimura M, Yoshikawa A, Hiramatsu Y, Ishida T, Makino S, Takasugi Y, Hanafusa T (2015) Periodontal pathogens participate in synovitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in clinical remission: a retrospective case-control study. Rheumatology (Oxford) 54:2257–2263. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/kev274 Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Janssen KM, de Smit MJ, Brouwer E, de Kok FA, Kraan J, Altenburg J, Verheul MK, Trouw LA, van Winkelhoff AJ, Vissink A, Westra J (2015) Rheumatoid arthritis-associated autoantibodies in non-rheumatoid arthritis patients with mucosal inflammation: a case-control study. Arthritis research & therapy 17:174. doi: 10.1186/s13075-015-0690-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bello-Gualtero JM, Lafaurie GI, Hoyos LX, Castillo DM, De-Avila J, Munevar JC, Unriza S, Londono J, Valle-Onate R, Romero-Sanchez C (2015) Periodontal disease in individuals with a genetic risk of developing arthritis or with early rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional study. J Periodontol:1–18. doi: 10.1902/jop.2015.150455
  50. 50.
    Reichert S, Schlumberger W, Dahnrich C, Hornig N, Altermann W, Schaller HG, Schulz S (2015) Association of levels of antibodies against citrullinated cyclic peptides and citrullinated alpha-enolase in chronic and aggressive periodontitis as a risk factor of rheumatoid arthritis: a case control study. J Transl Med 13:283. doi: 10.1186/s12967-015-0625-7 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Fisher BA, Cartwright AJ, Quirke AM, de Pablo P, Romaguera D, Panico S, Mattiello A, Gavrila D, Navarro C, Sacerdote C, Vineis P, Tumino R, Lappin DF, Apazidou D, Culshaw S, Potempa J, Michaud DS, Riboli E, Venables PJ (2015) Smoking, Porphyromonas gingivalis and the immune response to citrullinated autoantigens before the clinical onset of rheumatoid arthritis in a southern European nested case-control study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 16:331. doi: 10.1186/s12891-015-0792-y CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Darveau RP, Pham TT, Lemley K, Reife RA, Bainbridge BW, Coats SR, Howald WN, Way SS, Hajjar AM (2004) Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide contains multiple lipid a species that functionally interact with both toll-like receptors 2 and 4. Infect Immun 72:5041–5051. doi: 10.1128/IAI.72.9.5041-5051.2004 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Tribble GD, Mao S, James CE, Lamont RJ (2006) A Porphyromonas gingivalis haloacid dehalogenase family phosphatase interacts with human phosphoproteins and is important for invasion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:11027–11032. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0509813103 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Singh A, Wyant T, Anaya-Bergman C, Aduse-Opoku J, Brunner J, Laine ML, Curtis MA, Lewis JP (2011) The capsule of Porphyromonas gingivalis leads to a reduction in the host inflammatory response, evasion of phagocytosis, and increase in virulence. Infect Immun 79:4533–4542. doi: 10.1128/IAI.05016-11 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Shiloah J, Patters MR (1994) DNA probe analyses of the survival of selected periodontal pathogens following scaling, root planing, and intra-pocket irrigation. J Periodontol 65:568–575. doi: 10.1902/jop.1994.65.6.568 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Liljestrand JM, Gursoy UK, Hyvarinen K, Sorsa T, Suominen AL, Kononen E, Pussinen PJ (2014) Combining salivary pathogen and serum antibody levels improves their diagnostic ability in detection of periodontitis. J Periodontol 85:123–131. doi: 10.1902/jop.2013.130030 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Takeuchi Y, Aramaki M, Nagasawa T, Umeda M, Oda S, Ishikawa I (2006) Immunoglobulin G subclass antibody profiles in Porphyromonas gingivalis-associated aggressive and chronic periodontitis patients. Oral Microbiol Immunol 21:314–318. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-302X.2006.00296.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kudo C, Naruishi K, Maeda H, Abiko Y, Hino T, Iwata M, Mitsuhashi C, Murakami S, Nagasawa T, Nagata T, Yoneda S, Nomura Y, Noguchi T, Numabe Y, Ogata Y, Sato T, Shimauchi H, Yamazaki K, Yoshimura A, Takashiba S (2012) Assessment of the plasma/serum IgG test to screen for periodontitis. J Dent Res 91:1190–1195. doi: 10.1177/0022034512461796 [pii]CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Dye BA, Herrera-Abreu M, Lerche-Sehm J, Vlachojannis C, Pikdoken L, Pretzl B, Schwartz A, Papapanou PN (2009) Serum antibodies to periodontal bacteria as diagnostic markers of periodontitis. J Periodontol 80:634–647. doi: 10.1902/jop.2009.080474 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hosaka Y, Saito A, Nakagawa T, Seida K, Yamada S, Okuda K (1994) Effect of initial therapy on dynamics of immunogloblin G levels to some periodontopathic bacteria in serum and gingival crevicular fluid. Bull Tokyo Dent Coll 35:207–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lamont RJ, Hajishengallis GN, Jenkinson HF (2014) Oral microbiology and immunology, 2nd edn . ASM Press, WashingtonBook titleGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Curtis MA, Slaney JM, Carman RJ, Johnson NW (1991) Identification of the major surface protein antigens of Porphyromonas gingivalis using IgG antibody reactivity of periodontal case-control serum. Oral Microbiol Immunol 6:321–326CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Konig MF, Paracha AS, Moni M, Bingham CO, 3rd and Andrade F (2014) Defining the role of Porphyromonas gingivalis peptidylarginine deiminase (PPAD) in rheumatoid arthritis through the study of PPAD biology. Ann Rheum Dis. doi: annrheumdis-2014-205385 [pii]Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hanaoka Y, Soejima H, Yasuda O, Nakayama H, Nagata M, Matsuo K, Shinohara M, Izumi Y, Ogawa H (2013) Level of serum antibody against a periodontal pathogen is associated with atherosclerosis and hypertension. Hypertens Res 36:829–833. doi: 10.1038/hr.2013.46 [pii]CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Arbes SJ Jr, Sever ML, Vaughn B, Cohen EA, Zeldin DC (2006) Oral pathogens and allergic disease: results from the third National Health and nutrition examination survey. J Allergy Clin Immunol 118:1169–1175. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2006.07.029 S0091-6749(06)01578-8
  66. 66.
    Lin D, Moss K, Beck JD, Hefti A, Offenbacher S (2007) Persistently high levels of periodontal pathogens associated with preterm pregnancy outcome. J Periodontol 78:833–841. doi: 10.1902/jop.2007.060201 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kaur S, Bright R, Proudman SM, Bartold PM (2014) Does periodontal treatment influence clinical and biochemical measures for rheumatoid arthritis? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Semin Arthritis Rheum 44:113–122. doi: 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2014.04.009 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Chen CC, Giustino J (2007) Grip strength, perceived ability, and health status in individuals with arthritis: an exploratory study. Occupational therapy in health care 21:1–18. doi: 10.1080/J003v21n04_01 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Pons-Fuster A, Rodriguez Agudo C, Galvez Munoz P, Saiz Cuenca E, Pina Perez FM, Lopez-Jornet P (2015) Clinical evaluation of periodontal disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional study. Quintessence Int. doi: 10.3290/j.qi.a34456

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Periodontology, School of Dental MedicineUniversity of BernBernSwitzerland
  2. 2.Ressort ResearchUniversity of Bern, School of Dental MedicineBernSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations