Clinical Oral Investigations

, Volume 21, Issue 4, pp 1157–1163 | Cite as

Randomized trial investigating zirconia electroplated telescopic retainers: quality of life outcomes

  • Franz Sebastian SchwindlingEmail author
  • Ulrich Karl Deisenhofer
  • Anne-Christiane Séché
  • Franziska Lehmann
  • Peter Rammelsberg
  • Thomas Stober
Original Article



The study aims to evaluate the effect of electroplated telescopic removable dental prostheses (E-RDPs) with zirconia primary crowns on oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQoL).

Materials and methods

For E-RDPs, electroplating is used to produce precisely fitting gold copings on telescopic primary crowns. These copings are bonded intra-orally to the denture framework. Fifty-six participants in need of 60 removable restorations were randomly allocated one of two materials for the primary crowns: cobalt–chromium alloy or zirconia. OHRQoL was assessed by use of the 49-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-49) and by additional patient self-rating at baseline before treatment, and after 6 and 12 months. Statistical analysis was performed by use of one- and two-sample t-tests and analysis of covariance.


Mean OHIP sum score at baseline was 53.4 (SD 37.4, 95 % CI 41.3–62). At follow-ups, it decreased significantly (after 6 months: mean 20, SD 26, 95 % CI 13–27.1; after 12 months: mean 16.4, SD 17.9, 95 % CI 11.6–21.2). The mean reduction in OHIP sum score after 12 months was 25 (SD 31.2, 95 % CI 13.1–36.9) for cobalt–chromium alloy and 44.4 (SD 32.3, 95 % CI 31.1–57.8) for zirconia. However, no statistically significant difference of the two materials on OHIP change or patient self-rating was detected.


Although OHRQoL was improved by using both cobalt–chromium alloy and zirconia primary crowns for E-RDPs, post-treatment differences between the groups were not statistically significant.

Clinical relevance

Zirconia E-RDPs enhance OHRQoL. However, zirconia primary crowns do not outperform cobalt–chromium alloy crowns regarding patient satisfaction—despite their tooth-like color.


OHRQoL Patient satisfaction Removable dental prostheses Electroplating Zirconia Cobalt–chromium 



The authors would like to thank the dental laboratory Hans Plewe GmbH (Neckargemünd, Germany) for performing parts of the laboratory work. We are, furthermore, grateful to Johannes Krisam, for help with statistical analysis, and Ian Davies, for proofreading the manuscript. Parts of the manuscript were prepared during the Summer Institute 2014 at the School of Dentistry, University of Washington, Seattle. We would like to thank Dr. Timothy DeRouen and Dr. Karl Kaiyala for patiently sharing their expertise in clinical research and data analysis. Sebastian Schwindling was supported by the Physician Scientist-Programme of the Medical Faculty of the University of Heidelberg.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


This study was financially supported by a grant from Nobel Biocare Services AG (grant no 2005–362).

Ethical approval

All procedures performed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the local institutional review board (file S-451/2005) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Franz Sebastian Schwindling
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ulrich Karl Deisenhofer
    • 1
  • Anne-Christiane Séché
    • 2
  • Franziska Lehmann
    • 3
  • Peter Rammelsberg
    • 1
  • Thomas Stober
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ProsthodonticsHeidelberg University HospitalHeidelbergGermany
  2. 2.Private practiceDüsseldorfGermany
  3. 3.Private practiceLandshutGermany

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