Clinical Oral Investigations

, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 111–120 | Cite as

Electrical stimulation enhances tissue reorganization during orthodontic tooth movement in rats

  • Gisele Sampaio Spadari
  • Ewerton Zaniboni
  • Silvia Amelia Scudeler Vedovello
  • Mauro Pedrine Santamaria
  • Maria Esméria Corezola do Amaral
  • Gláucia Maria Tech dos Santos
  • Marcelo Augusto Marretto Esquisatto
  • Fernanda Aparecida Sampaio Mendonca
  • Milton Santamaria-Jr
Original Article



This study evaluated the effects of a low-intensity electric current on tissue reorganization during experimental orthodontic tooth movement.

Materials and methods

Thirty-two animals were divided into two groups evaluated on days 3 and 7: OTM—orthodontic tooth movement and OTM + MC—orthodontic tooth movement and microcurrent application (10 μA/5 min). The samples were processed for histological, morphometric, and Western blotting analysis.


Analysis of the periodontal ligament (PL) showed a significantly smaller number of granulocytes in the OTM + MC group on day 7.The number of fibroblasts was significantly higher in the OTM + MC group on days 3 and 7. The area of birefringent collagen fibers was more organized in the OTM + MC group on days 3 and 7. The number of blood vessels was significantly higher in the OTM + MC group on day 7. Microcurrent application significantly increased the number of osteoclasts in the compression region of the PL. In the OTM + MC group on day 7 of tooth movement, the expression of TGF-β1 and VEGF was significantly reduced whereas the expression of bFGF was increased in PL.


Electrical stimulation enhances tissue responses, reducing the number of granulocytes and increasing the number of fibroblasts, blood vessels, and osteoclasts and modulates the expression of TGF-β1, VEFG, and bFGF.

Clinical relevance

This technique is used in many areas of medicine, but poorly explored in dentistry and orthodontics. This treatment is cheap and non-invasive and can be applied by own orthodontist, and it can improve the treatment with a faster and safe tooth movement, without pain.


Microcurrent application Low-intensity electric current Orthodontic tooth movement 


Compliance with ethical standards


This study was funded by the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development - CAPES/PNPD (process no. 23038.008192/2013-01) and Heminio Ometto University Center.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in the present research were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Research Ethics Committee of Herminio Ometto University Center (permit no. 095/2011) and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

The studied experimental model involves animals (rats), thus informed consent is not necessary.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gisele Sampaio Spadari
    • 1
  • Ewerton Zaniboni
    • 2
  • Silvia Amelia Scudeler Vedovello
    • 1
  • Mauro Pedrine Santamaria
    • 4
  • Maria Esméria Corezola do Amaral
    • 3
  • Gláucia Maria Tech dos Santos
    • 3
  • Marcelo Augusto Marretto Esquisatto
    • 3
  • Fernanda Aparecida Sampaio Mendonca
    • 3
  • Milton Santamaria-Jr
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Graduate Program of OrthodonticsHeminio Ometto University Center, UNIARARASArarasBrazil
  2. 2.School of DentistryHeminio Ometto University Center, UNIARARASArarasBrazil
  3. 3.Graduate Program of Biomedical SciencesHeminio Ometto University Center, UNIARARASArarasBrazil
  4. 4.Division of Periodontics, College of DentistryState University of São Paulo, UNESPSão José dos CamposBrazil

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