Pre-coating deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) with bone-conditioned medium (BCM) improves osteoblast migration, adhesion, and differentiation in vitro
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Autogenous bone grafting has remained the gold standard for bone augmentation procedures with ability to release growth factors to the surrounding microenvironment. Recent investigations have characterized these specific growth factors released by autogenous bone chips with further isolation into a “bone-conditioned medium” (BCM). The aim of the present investigation was to utilize autologous growth factors from bone chips (BCM) in combination with deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) and investigate the ability for BCM to enhance osteoblast behavior.
Materials and methods
Mouse ST2 cells were seeded on (1) DBBM particles alone or (2) DBBM + BCM. Thereafter, samples were compared for cell recruitment, adhesion, proliferation, and real-time PCR for osteoblast differentiation markers including Runx2, collagen 1 alpha 2 (COL1A2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and osteocalcin (OCN). Alizarin red staining was used to assess mineralization.
Coating BCM on DBBM particles improved cell migration of ST2 cells and significantly enhanced a 2-fold increase in cell adhesion. While no significant increase in cell proliferation was observed, BCM significantly increased mRNA levels of COL1A2, ALP, and OCN at 3 days post seeding. Furthermore, a 3-fold increase in alizarin red staining was observed on DBBM particles pre-coated with BCM.
Pre-coating DBBM with BCM enhanced the osteoconductive properties of DBBM by mediating osteoblast recruitment, attachment, and differentiation towards bone-forming osteoblasts. Future animal study is necessary to further characterize the added benefit of BCM as an autogenous growth factor source for combination therapies.
The application of BCM in combination with biomaterials may serve as an autogenous growth factor source for bone regeneration.
KeywordsBone-conditioned media Guided bone regeneration Bone grafting Barrier membranes Growth factors
Compliance with ethical standards
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
Conflict of interest
DBBM particles were kindly supplied by Geistlich AG, Switzerland. All authors declare no conflict of interest.
This work was fully funded by the Oral Cell Biology Laboratory at the University of Bern, Switzerland.
For this type of study, informed consent was not required.
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