Clinical Oral Investigations

, Volume 20, Issue 8, pp 2259–2265 | Cite as

Osteoinductive potential of 4 commonly employed bone grafts

  • Richard J. MironEmail author
  • Qiao Zhang
  • Anton Sculean
  • Daniel Buser
  • Benjamin E. Pippenger
  • Michel Dard
  • Yoshinori Shirakata
  • Fatiha Chandad
  • Yufeng ZhangEmail author
Original Article



Guided bone regeneration (GBR) aims to predictably restore missing bone that has been lost due to trauma, periodontal disease or a variety of systemic conditions. Critical to this procedure is the ability of a bone grafting material to predictably serve as a 3-dimensional scaffold capable of inducing cell and bone tissue in-growth at the material surface. Although all bone grafts are osteoconductive to bone-forming osteoblasts, only a small number of commercially available bone grafts with FDA approval are osteoinductive including demineralized freeze-dried bone allographs (DFDBA) and scaffolds containing bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Recently, a class of synthetic bone grafts fabricated from biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) sintered at a low temperature have been shown to form ectopic bone formation in non-skeletal sites without the use of growth factors. Therefore, the present study aimed to compare the osteoinductive potential of this group of synthetic BCP alloplasts with autografts, allografts and xenografts.

Materials and methods

In the present study, 4 types of bone grafting materials including autogenous bone harvested with a bone mill, DFDBA (LifeNet, USA), a xenograft derived from bovine bone mineral (NBM, BioOss, Geistlich, Switzerland) and a novel synthetic biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP, Straumman, Switzerland) were implanted into intramuscular pouches of 24 rats and analysed histologically for their ability to form ectopic bone formation around grafting particles. A semi-quantitative osteoinductive score was used to quantify the osteoinductive ability of each bone graft.


The results from the present study reveal that (1) autogenous bone resorbed rapidly in vivo, (2) the xenograft showed no potential to form ectopic bone formation and (3) both DFDBA and BCP were able to stimulate ectopic bone formation.


These studies demonstrate that these newly developed synthetic bone grafts have potential for inducing ectopic bone formation similar to DFDBA. Future clinical testing is necessary to reveal their bone-inducing properties in clinical scenarios including GBR procedures and in combination with implant dentistry.

Clinical relevance

Novel BCP scaffolds are able to induce ectopic bone formation without the use of osteoinductive growth factors such as BMP2 and thus demonstrate a large clinical possibility to further enhance bone formation for a variety of clinical procedures.


Osteoinduction Osteoinductive potential Bone grafts Natural bone mineral 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

BCP grafts were kindly provided by Straumann AG, Switzerland. Benjamin Pippenger and Michel Dard are both employees of Straumann AG who contributed to the experimental design and provided the bone grafting materials. All other authors declare no conflict of interest.


This study was supported by a grant from the American Academy of Implant Dentistry to Richard J. Miron (2013).

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed by the University of Wuhan, Department of Oral Implantology, China.

Informed consent

No informed patient consent was necessary.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard J. Miron
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  • Qiao Zhang
    • 1
  • Anton Sculean
    • 3
  • Daniel Buser
    • 4
  • Benjamin E. Pippenger
    • 5
  • Michel Dard
    • 6
  • Yoshinori Shirakata
    • 7
  • Fatiha Chandad
    • 2
  • Yufeng Zhang
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) & Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, School & Hospital of StomatologyWuhan UniversityWuhanPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Faculté de Medecine Dentaire, Pavillon de Médecine DentaireUniversité de LavalQuébecCanada
  3. 3.Department of PeriodontologyUniversity of Bern, School of Dental MedicineBernSwitzerland
  4. 4.Department of Oral Surgery and Stomatology, School of Dental MedicineUniversity of BernBernSwitzerland
  5. 5.Institut Straumann AGBaselSwitzerland
  6. 6.Department of Periodontology and Implant DentistryNew York UniversityNew YorkUSA
  7. 7.Department of PeriodontologyKagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental SciencesKagoshimaJapan

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