Clinical Oral Investigations

, Volume 20, Issue 7, pp 1757–1764 | Cite as

Epulis: a study of 92 cases with special emphasis on histopathological diagnosis and associated clinical data

  • Astrid Truschnegg
  • Stephan Acham
  • Birgit Alexandra Kiefer
  • Norbert Jakse
  • Alfred Beham
Original Article



Aim of the present study was clinical and histopathological evaluation of a series of epulides to provide clinicians data to frequency distribution and biological behaviour of different underlying entities.

Materials and methods

Ninety-two cases of epulides removed by CO2-laser at the Department of Oral Surgery and Radiology, Medical University of Graz from 2000 to 2014 were studied retrospectively for clinical data and histopathological diagnosis.


In the presented study, histopathological examination revealed peripheral ossifying fibroma (32.6 %), fibroma/fibrosis (29.3 %), giant cell lesion (13.1 %) and granuloma pyogenicum (8.7 %) as the most frequent underlying entities. For the first time, hyperplastic squamous epithelium (7.6 %), granulation tissue (5.4 %) and peripheral odontogenic fibromas (3.3 %) were detected to clinically appear as epulides. Irrespective of the histological diagnosis, the mean age in our patients was 43.8 years. The majority of the lesions were found in the frontal region of both jaws. In all cases, the patients showed poor oral hygiene, local gingivitis and some of them an occlusal trauma.


To identify different entities with different biological behaviour, to exclude malignant tumours and to identify new entities among epulides, histopathological examination is required. Poor oral hygiene and occlusal trauma seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis and could be risk factors for recurrences.

Clinical relevance

Frequency distribution of different entities in epulides is provided to clinicians, and new histopathological entities were detected to clinically appear as epulides.


Hyperplastic gingival lesions Reactive lesions Epulis Clinical data Histopathological entities 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

For this type of study, formal consent is not required.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Astrid Truschnegg
    • 1
  • Stephan Acham
    • 1
  • Birgit Alexandra Kiefer
    • 2
  • Norbert Jakse
    • 1
  • Alfred Beham
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Oral Surgery and RadiologyUniversity Dental Clinic, Medical University GrazGrazAustria
  2. 2.Department of General Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care MedicineMedical University GrazGrazAustria
  3. 3.IMAH, Institute of Morphological Analytics and Human GeneticsGrazAustria

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