Clinical Oral Investigations

, Volume 19, Issue 8, pp 2075–2089 | Cite as

Calcium silicate/calcium phosphate biphasic cements for vital pulp therapy: chemical-physical properties and human pulp cells response

  • M. G. GandolfiEmail author
  • G. Spagnuolo
  • F. Siboni
  • A. Procino
  • V. Rivieccio
  • G. A. Pelliccioni
  • C. Prati
  • S. Rengo
Original Article



The aim was to test the properties of experimental calcium silicate/calcium phosphate biphasic cements with hydraulic properties designed for vital pulp therapy as direct pulp cap and pulpotomy.


CaSi-αTCP and CaSi-DCDP were tested for ion-releasing ability, solubility, water sorption, porosity, ability to nucleate calcium phosphates, and odontoblastic differentiation—alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OCN) upregulation—of primary human dental pulp cells (HDPCs).


The materials showed high Ca and OH release, high open pore volume and apparent porosity, and a pronounced ability to nucleate calcium phosphates on their surface. HDPCs treated with CaSi-αTCP showed a strong upregulation of ALP and OCN genes, namely a tenfold increase for OCN and a threefold increase for ALP compared to the control cells. Conversely, CaSi-DCDP induced a pronounced OCN gene upregulation but had no effect on ALP gene regulation.


Both cements showed high biointeractivity (release of Ca and OH ions) correlated with their marked ability to nucleate calcium phosphates. CaSi-αTCP cement proved to be a potent inducer of ALP and OCN genes as characteristic markers of mineralization processes normally poorly expressed by HDPCs.

Clinical relevance

Calcium silicate/calcium phosphate cements appear to be attractive new materials for vital pulp therapy as they may provide odontogenic/dentinogenic chemical signals for pulp regeneration and healing, and dentin formation in regenerative endodontics.


Calcium silicate cements Calcium phosphate cements MTA Pulp cells Pulp therapy Biointeractivity Calcium release Dentine regeneration pH Porosity Solubility Genes activation Alkaline phosphatase Osteocalcin Regenerative dentistry 


Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. G. Gandolfi
    • 1
    Email author
  • G. Spagnuolo
    • 2
  • F. Siboni
    • 1
  • A. Procino
    • 2
  • V. Rivieccio
    • 2
  • G. A. Pelliccioni
    • 1
  • C. Prati
    • 1
  • S. Rengo
    • 2
  1. 1.Dental School (Laboratory of Biomaterials and Oral Pathology), Department of Biomedical and NeuroMotor SciencesUniversity of BolognaBolognaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Neurosciences, Reproductive and Odontostomatological SciencesUniversity of Naples “Federico II”NapoliItaly

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