Comparative assessment of the interfacial soft and hard tissues investing implants and natural teeth in the macaque mandible
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The aim of this study was to conduct a comparative qualitative and quantitative assessment of the interfacial soft and hard tissues investing implants and natural teeth.
Materials and methods
The test sample consisted of six adult healthy male Macaca fascicularis with three-unit splinted crowns, each crown supported by an Ankylos screw-shaped titanium implant. These implants were placed in the mandibular premolar-second molar region, one side by an immediate-loading (IL) and the other by delayed-loading (DL) protocol. The animals were sacrificed after 3 months of functional loading. Another two monkeys with natural dentition served as controls. Nondecalcified sections were prepared for assessment of optical intensities (OI) under a confocal laser scanning microscope.
In both the test (IL and DL) and control, the soft tissue complexes demonstrated a highly fluorescent keratinized layer and diminished cytoplasmic and enhanced membranous fluorescence in the remaining epithelium. Peri-implant mucosa was further characterized by an intense fluorescence at the junctional epithelium-implant interface and in the stromal mononuclear infiltrate. Connective tissue contact and periodontal ligament were weakly fluorescent. In hard tissues, a high fluorescence was observed in peri-implant woven bone and along the implant-bone interface. Mean OI was significantly higher in peri-implant woven bone than around teeth (P < 0.05). In the remaining soft and hard tissue complexes, no significant differences in mean OI between the test and control were observed (P > 0.05).
Present findings suggest that peri-implant woven bone is highly mineralized, while the peri-implant and gingival mucosa share structural similarities.
Optical intensities of interfacial tissues investing implants and teeth are related to their biological properties.
KeywordsDental implant Interfacial tissues Natural teeth Optical intensity
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