Clinical Oral Investigations

, Volume 19, Issue 2, pp 209–220 | Cite as

Effect of growth factors on antimicrobial peptides and pro-inflammatory mediators during wound healing

  • H. DommischEmail author
  • J. Winter
  • W. Götz
  • J. Miesen
  • A. Klein
  • L. Hierse
  • J. Deschner
  • A. Jäger
  • J. Eberhard
  • S. Jepsen
Original Article



Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), such as human beta-defensin-2 (hBD-2) and the CC-chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20), exhibit direct microbicidal effects and mediator-like activity. It was hypothesized that wounding induces the expression of AMPs and pro-inflammatory mediators and that endogenous mediators, such as insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), modulate this induced expression.

Material and methods

Monolayers of gingival epithelial cells (GECs) and gingival fibroblast (HGFs) from three different donors were wounded using the scratch assay (in vitro wounding) in the presence (test group) or absence (control group) of IGF-1 and TGF-alpha. In vitro wound closure was monitored over time (0, 6, 24, 48, 72 h), and wound areas were microscopically analyzed (Axio-Vision® Software, Zeiss). Gene expression analysis of the GAPDH, hBD-2, CCL20, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), and interleukin-8 (IL-8) was performed by qPCR.


In comparison to control cells, IGF-1 and TGF-alpha significantly enhanced in vitro wound closure (P < 0.05). In GECs, IGF-1 induced the gene expression of IL-1 beta and IL-8 when compared to control cells (P < 0.05). In HGFs, wounding per se induced the messenger RNA of hBD-2, CCL20, and IL-1 beta, whereas IGF-1 and TGF-alpha reversed this effect (P < 0.05).


In gingival cells, the gene expression of AMPs was altered by injury, and endogenous growth factors further influenced the expression profiles, but with high interindividual differences.


Antimicrobial peptides Gingival epithelial cells Gingival fibroblasts IGF-1 In vitro wounding TGF-alpha 



The authors kindly thank Mrs. J. Eich and Ms. D. Lalaouni for their excellent technical assistance. This study was financially supported by the German Society of Periodontology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Parodontologie, DGP; authors: H.D., S.J.) and the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG, Clinical Research Unit 208; authors: TP2, H.D., S.J.; TP7, W.G.; TP4, J.D.; TP8, A.J.; TP9, L.H.; TP10, J.W.).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

784_2014_1239_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (56 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 56 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Dommisch
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • J. Winter
    • 1
    • 3
  • W. Götz
    • 3
    • 4
  • J. Miesen
    • 1
  • A. Klein
    • 1
  • L. Hierse
    • 1
    • 3
  • J. Deschner
    • 3
  • A. Jäger
    • 3
    • 4
  • J. Eberhard
    • 5
  • S. Jepsen
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Periodontology, Operative and Preventive DentistryUniversity Hospital BonnBonnGermany
  2. 2.Department of Oral Health ScienesUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  3. 3.Clinical Research Unit 208University Hospital BonnBonnGermany
  4. 4.Department of OrthodonticsUniversity Hospital BonnBonnGermany
  5. 5.Clinic for Dental Prosthetics and Biomedical Materials ScienceHannover Medical SchoolHannoverGermany

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