Effects of short-term xylitol gum chewing on the oral microbiome
- 1.3k Downloads
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of short-term xylitol gum chewing on the salivary microbiota of children.
Materials and methods
The study was a randomised, controlled, double-blind trial. Healthy children used xylitol chewing gum (xylitol group, n = 35) or sorbitol chewing gum (control group, n = 38) for 5 weeks. The daily dose of xylitol/sorbitol was approximately 6 g/day. At baseline and at the end of the test period, unstimulated and paraffin-stimulated saliva were collected. The microbial composition of the saliva was assessed using human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM). Mutans streptococci (MS) were plate cultured.
As judged by HOMIM results, no xylitol-induced changes in the salivary microbiota took place in the xylitol group. In the control group, Veillonella atypica showed a significant decrease (p = 0.0001). The xylitol gum chewing decreased viable counts of MS in both stimulated (p = 0.006) and unstimulated (p = 0.002) saliva, but similar effects were also seen in the control group.
The use of xylitol gum decreased MS, in general, but did not change the salivary microbial composition.
Short-term consumption of xylitol had no impact on the composition of the salivary microbiota, but resulted in a decrease in the levels of MS.
KeywordsXylitol Sorbitol HOMIM Mutans streptococci Microbiota
The excellent technical assistance of biomedical research technician Oona Hällfors (Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku, Finland) and Anisha Varghese (Faculty of Dentistry, University of Kuwait, Kuwait) is gratefully acknowledged. The STABPRO project (funded by TEKES, Finland) and Finnish Dental Society Apollonia are acknowledged for providing funding for the study. This study was also supported by Kuwait University grants DD02/10, GD01/11, SRUL02/13.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
- 18.World Health Organization (1997) Oral health surveys: basic methods, 4th edn. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- 22.Colombo AP, Boches SK, Cotton SL, Goodson JM, Kent R, Haffajee AD, Socransky SS, Hasturk H, Van Dyke TE, Dewhirst F, Paper BJ (2009) Comparisons of subgingival microbial profiles of refractory periodontitis, severe periodontitis, and periodontal health using the human oral microbe identification microarray. J Periodontol 80:1421–1432CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 24.Saeed AI, Sharov V, White J, Li J, Liang W, Bhagabati N, Braisted J, Klapa M, Currier T, Thiagarajan M, Sturn A, Snuffin M, Rezantsev A, Popov D, Ryltsov A, Kostukovich E, Borisovsky I, Liu Z, Vinsavich A, Trush V, Quackenbush J (2003) TM4: a free, open-source system for microarray data management and analysis. Biotechniques 34:374–378PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 25.Marsh P, Martin MV (2009) Oral microbiology, 5th edn. Elsevier, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 26.Havenaar R, Veld JHJ H i’t, Backer Dirks O, Stoppelaar JD (1978) Some bacteriological aspects of sugar substitutes. Proc ERGOB Conf. Karger, BaselGoogle Scholar
- 28.Saier MH Jr, Ye JJ, Klinke S, Nino E (1996) Identification of an anaerobically induced phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent fructose-specific phosphotransferase system and evidence for the Embden-Meyerhof glycolytic pathway in the heterofermentative bacterium Lactobacillus brevis. J Bacteriol 178:314–316PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar