Clinical Oral Investigations

, Volume 18, Issue 9, pp 2103–2112

Comparison of immunodulatory properties of dental pulp stem cells derived from healthy and inflamed teeth

  • Farinawati Binti Yazid
  • Nareshwaran Gnanasegaran
  • Wijenthiran Kunasekaran
  • Vijayendran Govindasamy
  • Sabri Musa
Original Article



The aim of this study was to investigate the immunodulatory properties of dental pulp stem cells derived from healthy (SCD) and inflamed pulp deciduous (SCDIP) tissues. The overall hypothesis is that SCDIP possess equal immune properties with SCD and could be used as an alternative tissue source in regenerative medicine.

Materials and methods

An intra-oral examination was carried out to assess the status of the pulp tissues and group them according to healthy or inflamed. Primary cells were established from these groups, and basic mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) characterizations were conducted. The expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA), namely HLA-G, HLA-DR, and HLA-ABC were examined in both cell lines using flow cytometry. We further compared the immunosuppressive effects of SCD and SCDIP on phytohemagglutinin-induced T cell proliferation. Supernatants were tested for cytokine profiling using multiplex array.


While SCD exhibited typical MSC characteristics, SCDIP on the other hand, did not. Compared with SCDIP, SCD effectively suppresses mitogen-induced T cells proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, as well as express a higher percentage of HLA-ABC and HLA-G. In addition, levels of several cytokines, such as TNF-α, TNF-β, and IL-2, were drastically suppressed in SCD than SCDIP. Furthermore, a high level of IL-10, an important anti-inflammatory cytokine, was present in SCD compared with SCDIP.


These findings suggest that SCDIP is highly dysfunctional in terms of their stemness and immunomodulatory properties.

Clinical relevance

SCDIP is not a viable therapeutic cell source especially when used in graft versus host disease (GvHD) and organ rejection.


Regenerative medicine Immunogenicity Cytokines Cells Deciduous teeth 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Farinawati Binti Yazid
    • 1
  • Nareshwaran Gnanasegaran
    • 2
    • 3
  • Wijenthiran Kunasekaran
    • 1
    • 3
  • Vijayendran Govindasamy
    • 4
  • Sabri Musa
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of DentistryUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of DentistryUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  3. 3.Regenerative Dentistry Research Group (ReDReG), Faculty of DentistryUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  4. 4.Stem Cells Laboratory, Hygieia Innovation Sdn. BhdFederal Territory of PutrajayaMalaysia

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