Clinical Oral Investigations

, Volume 18, Issue 7, pp 1793–1801 | Cite as

“Smile healthy to your diabetes”: health coaching-based intervention for oral health and diabetes management

Original Article



This study is the first to our knowledge that aims to evaluate the impact of Health Coaching (HC) compared to Health Education (HE) on oral health and diabetes management among patients with diabetes type II (DM2).

Material and methods

The study is part of a prospective intervention among randomly selected DM2 patients (n = 186), Istanbul, Turkey. The data analyzed were Community Periodontal Need Index (CPI) and HbA1c (glycated hemoglobin percentage). Data was collected initially and at the end of the intervention. The participants, both attending oral examinations and filing out questionnaires (n = 179), were allocated to HC (n = 77) and HE (n = 102) groups by means of a block table of random numbers.


At baseline, there was no statistical difference between HC and HE groups in terms of CPI and HbA1c (p > 0.05). At postintervention, the HC group had significantly lower CPI and HbA1C than the HE group (p < 0.01). There was a significant reduction at HbA1c (0.8 %) and CPI (74 %) in HC group (p < 0.05). The impact of HE on CPI was less significant (21 % reduction) (p = 0.001); however, it was not significant on HbA1c (p = 0.68). The improvement at CPI from baseline to postintervention had significant impact on reduced HbA1c in the HC group (p < 0.05).

Conclusions and clinical relevance

The present findings imply that HC has a significantly higher impact on better management of diabetes and oral health when compared to formal HE. This calls for the use of HC by dentists, physicians, and diabetes educators in order to improve quality of life of DM2 patients by facilitating better oral health and diabetes self-management.


Diabetes type II Oral health Health coaching Health education Common risk factor approach 



Health Coaching


Health Education


World Health Organization


Community Need Index


Glycated hemoglobin expressed as the percentage of hemoglobin that is exposed to glucose


Duygu Ilhan (examiner)


Arzu Beklen (examiner)


Bilge Ertoglu Akmenek (performed periodontal cleaning for all participants)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Oral Public Health Department, Department of OdontologyUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark
  2. 2.Oral Public Health DepartmentYeditepe Dental FacultyIstanbulTurkey
  3. 3.Section of Global Oral Health Promotion, Department of OdontologyUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark
  4. 4.Department of OdontologyUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark

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