Clinical Oral Investigations

, Volume 18, Issue 1, pp 1–16 | Cite as

Natural compounds containing mouthrinses in the management of dental plaque and gingivitis: a systematic review

  • Yong Chen
  • Ricky WK Wong
  • Colman McGrath
  • Urban Hagg
  • C Jayampath Seneviratne
Review

Abstract

Objectives

To evaluate the effectiveness of natural compounds containing mouthrinse (NCCM) as an adjunct to unsupervised oral hygiene in the management of dental plaque and gingivitis.

Materials and methods

An electronic search for clinical studies of NCCMs was conducted in Medline-PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and EMBASE for a period spanning from the earliest available date in each database up to February 2013. Plaque index, gingival index, and gingival bleeding index were selected as primary outcomes. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed according to the “Levels of Evidence” outlined by the Center of Evidence-Based Medicine, and to the Jadad scale.

Results

The screen yielded 2,236 titles and abstracts that met the inclusion criteria. These identified 11 clinical trials testing 13 different NCCMs, and were used for data extraction. Heterogeneity and the limited number of studies on any individual NCCM precluded a formal meta-analysis. Of the 13 NCCMs tested, eight demonstrated positive results, and few reported any adverse effects or events.

Conclusions

Evidence proving the effectiveness of NCCM as an adjunct to unsupervised oral hygiene for plaque and gingivitis control is still insufficient. However, some natural products (compounds) may have oral health benefits, so further high-quality study is warranted.

Clinical relevance

This review provides an overview of the strength of clinical evidence regarding the effectiveness of natural compounds containing mouthrinses in promoting gingival health.

Keywords

Plant extracts Mouthwash Gingivitis Plaque Clinical trial Systematic review 

References

  1. 1.
    Haffajee AD, Roberts C, Murray L, Veiga N, Martin L, Teles RP, Letteri M, Socransky SS (2009) Effect of herbal, essential oil, and chlorhexidine mouthrinses on the composition of the subgingival microbiota and clinical periodontal parameters. J Clin Dent 20:211–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cao C, Sun X (1998) Herbal medicine for periodontal diseases. Int Dent J 48:316–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Surathu N, Kurumathur AV (2011) Traditional therapies in the management of periodontal disease in India and China. Periodontol 2000 56:14–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chen Y, Wong RW, Seneviratne CJ, Hagg U, McGrath C, Samaranayake LP (2012) The effects of natural compounds-containing mouthrinses on patients with fixed orthodontic appliance treatment: clinical and microbiological outcomes. Int J Paediatr Dent. doi: 10.1111/ipd.12018. [Epub ahead of print]
  5. 5.
    Wu CD, Savitt ED (2002) Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of over-the-counter oral hygiene products for the reduction and control of plaque and gingivitis. Periodontol 2000 28:91–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Moran JM (2008) Home-use oral hygiene products: mouthrinses. Periodontol 2000(48):42–53Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cho HB, Lee HH, Lee OH, Choi HS, Choi JS, Lee BY (2011) Clinical and microbial evaluation of the effects on gingivitis of a mouth rinse containing an Enteromorpha linza extract. J Med Food 14:1670–1676PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pourabbas R, Delazar A (2005) The effect of German chamomile mouthrinse on dental plaque and gingival inflammation. Iran J Pharm Res 4:105–109Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Van der Weijden GA, Timmer CJ, Timmerman MF, Reijerse E, Mantel MS, Van der Velden U (1998) The effect of herbal extracts in an experimental mouthrinse on established plaque and gingivitis. J Clin Periodontol 25:399–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lauten JD, Boyd L, Hanson MB, Lillie D, Gullion C, Madden TE (2005) A clinical study: Melaleuca, Manuka, Calendula and green tea mouth rinse. Phytother Res 19:951–957PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Duss C, Lang NP, Cosyn J, Persson GR (2010) A randomized, controlled clinical trial on the clinical, microbiological, and staining effects of a novel 0.05% chlorhexidine/herbal extract and a 0.1% chlorhexidine mouthrinse adjunct to periodontal surgery. J Clin Periodontol 37:988–997PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hannah J, Johnson J, Kuftinec M (1989) Long-term clinical evaluation of toothpaste and oral rinse containing sanguinaria extract in controlling plaque, gingival inflammation, and sulcular bleeding during orthodontic treatment. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 96:199–207Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kopczyk R, Abrams H, Brown A, Matheny J, Kaplan A (1991) Clinical and microbiological effects of a sanguinaria-containing mouthrinse and dentifrice with and without fluoride during 6 months of use. J Periodontol 62:617–622PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rahmani ME, Radvar M (2005) The antiplaque effects of Salvadora persica and Padina essential oil solution in comparison to chlorhexidine in human gingival disease; a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. Int J Pharm 1:311–315Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Stoeken JE, Paraskevas S, Van Der Weijden GA (2007) The long-term effect of a mouthrinse containing essential oils on dental plaque and gingivitis: a systematic review. J Periodontol 78:1218–1228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    ADA (2011) Acceptance program guidelines: Adjunctive dental therapies for the reduction of plaque and gingivitis. American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs. http://www.ada.org/sections/scienceAndResearch/pdfs/guide_adjunctive.pdf. Accessed 28 Feburary, 2013
  17. 17.
    Moran J, Addy M, Newcombe R (1988) A clinical trial to assess the efficacy of sanguinarine-zinc mouthrinse (Veadent) compared with chlorhexidine mouthrinse (Corsodyl). J Clin Periodontol 15:612–616PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Moran J, Addy M, Roberts S (1992) A comparison of natural product, triclosan and chlorhexidine mouthrinses on 4-day plaque regrowth. J Clin Periodontol 19:578–582PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    CEBM (2011) Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine 2011 Levels of Evidence. http://www.cebm.net/mod_product/design/files/CEBM-Levels-of-Evidence-2.1.pdf. Accessed 28 Feburary, 2013
  20. 20.
    Jadad AR, Moore RA, Carroll D, Jenkinson C, Reynolds DJM, Gavaghan DJ et al (1996) Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: is blinding necessary? Control Clin Trials 17:1–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pereira S, Oliveira J, Angelo K, Costa A, Costa F (2011) Clinical effect of a mouth rinse containing Ocimum gratissimum on plaque and gingivitis control. J Contemp Dent Pract 12:350–355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Vogel RI, Fink R, Frank O, Baker H (1978) The effect of topical application of folic acid on gingival health. J Oral Med 33:20–22Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sikka G, Dodwad V, Chandrashekar K (2012) Comparative anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis efficacy of two commercially available mouthwashes—4 weeks clinical study. J Oral Health Comm Dent 5:110–112Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Scherer W, Gultz J, Lee SS, Kaim J (1998) The ability of an herbal mouthrinse to reduce gingival bleeding. J Clin Dent 9:97–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Southern EN, McCombs GB, Tolle SL, Marinak K (2006) The comparative effects of 0.12% chlorhexidine and herbal oral rinse on dental plaque-induced gingivitis. J Dent Hyg 80:12–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pistorius A, Willershausen B, Steinmeier EM, Kreisler M (2003) Efficacy of subgingival irrigation using herbal extracts on gingival inflammation. J Periodontol 74:616–622PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Silness J, Loe H (1964) Periodontal disease in pregnancy II. Correlation between oral hygiene and periodontal condition. Acta Odontol Scand 22:121–135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Turesky S, Gilmore ND, Glickman I (1970) Reduced plaque formation by the chloromethyl analogue of vitamin C. J Periodontol 41:41–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Podchadley AC, Hogley JV (1968) A method for evaluating oral hygiene performance. Public Health Rep 83:259–264Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Quigley GA, Hein JW (1962) Comparative cleansing efficiency of manual and powerbrushing. J Am Dent Asso 65:26–29Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Loe H (1967) The gingival index, the plaque index, and the retention index systems. J Periodotol 38(Suppl):610–616Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Loe H, Silness J (1963) Periodontal disease in pregnancy. I. Prevalence and severity. Acta Odontol Scand 21:533–551PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lobene RR, Weatherford T, Ross NM, Lamm RA, Menaker L (1986) A modified gingival index for use in clinical trials. Clin Prevent Dent 8:3–6Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ainamo J, Bay I (1975) Problems and proposals for recording gingivitis and plaque. Int Dent J 25:229–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Van der Weijden GA, Timmerman MF, Saxton CA, Russell JI, Huntington E, Van der Velden U (1994) Intra-/inter-examiner reproducibility study of gingival bleeding. J Periodontal Res 29:236–241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mühlemann H, Son S (1971) Gingival sulcus bleeding—a leading symptom in initial gingivitis. Helv Odontol Acta 15:107–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Carter HG, Barnes GP (1974) The Gingival Bleeding Index. J Periodontol 45:801–805PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cowan M (1999) Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clin Microbiol Rev 12:564–582PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Signoretto C, Burlacchini G, Marchi A, Grillenzoni M, Cavalleri G, Ciric L, Lingstrom P, Pezzati E, Daglia M, Zaura E, Pratten J, Spratt DA, Wilson M, Canepari P (2011) Testing a low molecular mass fraction of a mushroom (Lentinus edodes) extract formulated as an oral rinse in a cohort of volunteers. J Biomed Biotechnol Epub. doi:10.1155/2011/857987 Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dodwad V, Kukreja BJ (2011) Propolis mouthwash: a new beginning. J Indian Soc of Periodontol 15:121–125Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Pereira EMR, Da Silva JLDC, Silva FF, De Luca MP, Ferreira EFE, Lorentz TCM, Santos VR (2011) Clinical evidence of the efficacy of a mouthwash containing propolis for the control of plaque and gingivitis: a Phase II study. Evid Based Complement Altern Med. doi:10.1155/2011/750249 Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Van Leeuwen MP, Slot DE, Van der Weijden GA (2011) Essential oils compared to chlorhexidine with respect to plaque and parameters of gingival inflammation: a systematic review. J Periodontol 82:174–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kalemba D, Kunicka A (2003) Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils. Curr Med Chem 10:813–829PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Matan N, Rimkeeree H, Mawson A, Chompreeda P, Haruthaithanasan V, Parker M (2006) Antimicrobial activity of cinnamon and clove oils under modified atmosphere conditions. Int J Food Microbiol 107:180–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Fu YJ, Zu YG, Chen LY, Shi XG, Wang Z, Sun S, Efferth T (2007) Antimicrobial activity of clove and rosemary essential oils alone and in combination. Phytother Res 21:989–994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Öztürk A, Özbek H (2005) The anti-inflammatory activity of Eugenia caryophyllata essential oil: an animal model of anti-inflammatory activity. Europ J Gen Med 2:159–163Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Viuda-Martos M, Ruiz-Navajas Y, Fernandez-Lopez J, Perez-Alvarez J (2007) Antifungal activities of thyme, clove and oregano essential oils. J Food Saf 27:91–101Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Orafidiya LO, Oyedele A, Shittu A, Elujoba A (2001) The formulation of an effective topical antibacterial product containing Ocimum gratissimum leaf essential oil. Int J Pharm 224:177–183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ofokansi K, Esimone C, Anele C (2006) Evaluation of the in vitro combined antibacterial effect of the leaf extracts of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Fam: crassulaceae) and Ocimum gratissimum (Fam: labiatae). Plant Prod Res J 9:23–27Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lino C, Gomes P, Lucetti D, Diógenes J, Sousa F, Silva M, Viana GSB (2005) Evaluation of antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activities of the essential oil (EO) of Ocimum micranthum Willd. from Northeastern Brazil. Phytother Res 19:708–712PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lahijani S, Raoof Kateb H, Heady R, Yazdani D (2006) The effect of German chamomile (Marticaria recutita L.) extract and tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia L.) oil used as irrigants on removal of smear layer: a scanning electron microscopy study. Int Endod J 39:190–195Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Gardiner P (2007) Complementary, holistic, and integrative medicine chamomile. Pediatr Rev 28:e16–e18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Tubaro A, Zilli C, Redaelli C, Loggia RD (1984) Evaluation of antiinflammatory activity of a chamomile extract after topical application. Planta med 50:359–359Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kobayashi Y, Takahashi R, Ogino F (2005) Antipruritic effect of the single oral administration of German chamomile flower extract and its combined effect with antiallergic agents in ddY mice. J Ethnopharmacol 101:308–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wu C, Darout I, Skaug N (2001) Chewing sticks: timeless natural toothbrushes for oral cleansing. J Periodontal Res 36:275–284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Almas K (2002) The effect of Salvadora persica extract (miswak) and chlorhexidine gluconate on human dentin: a SEM study. J Contemp Dent Pract 3:27–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Al-Bayati FA, Sulaiman KD (2008) In vitro antimicrobial activity of Salvadora persica L. extracts against some isolated oral pathogens in Iraq. Turk J Biol 32:57–62Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Almas K (2001) The effects of extracts of chewing sticks (Salvadora persica) on healthy and periodontally involved human dentine: a SEM study. Indian J dent Res 12:127–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Gazi M, Lambourne A (1987) The antiplaque effect of toothpaste containing Salvadora persica compared with chlorhexidine gluconate: a pilot study. Clin Prevent Dent 9:3–8Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Quinlan R, Robson G, Pack A (1994) A study comparing the efficacy of a toothpaste containing extract of Salvadora persica with a standard fluoride toothpaste. JNZ Soc Periodontol 77:7–14Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    González del Val A, Platas G, Basilio A, Cabello A, Gorrochategui J, Suay I, Vicente, F. Portillo, E, Jiménez del Río, M, García Reina, G. (2010) Screening of antimicrobial activities in red, green and brown macroalgae from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain) Int Microbiol 4:35–40Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hudson J, Kim J, Lee M, DeWreede R, Hong Y (1998) Antiviral compounds in extracts of Korean seaweeds: evidence for multiple activities. J Appl Phycol 10:427–434Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Sukatar A, Karabay-Yavaşsoglu NU, Ozdemir G, Horzum Z (2006) Antimicrobial activity of volatile component and various extracts of Enteromorpha linza (Linnaeus) J. Agardh from the coast of Izmir, Turkey. Ann Microbiol 56:275–279Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Khan MNA, Choi JS, Lee MC, Kim E, Nam TJ, Fujii H, Hong YK (2008) Anti-inflammatory activities of methanol extracts from various seaweed species. J Environ Biol 29:465–469PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Harper DS, Mueller L, Fine J, Gordon J, Laster L (1990) Clinical efficacy of a dentifrice and oral rinse containing sanguinaria extract and zinc chloride during 6 months of use. J Periodontol 61:352–358PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Eversole L, Eversole G, Kopcik J (2000) Sanguinaria-associated oral leukoplakia: comparison with other benign and dysplastic leukoplakic lesions. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 89:455–464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Mascarenhas AK, Michael AC, Loudon J (2001) The association between Viadent use and oral leukoplakia. Epidemiology 12:741–743PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Vlachojannis C, Magora F, Chrubasik S (2012) Rise and fall of oral health products with Canadian bloodroot extract. Phytother Res 26:1423–1426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    McCullough M, Farah C (2008) The role of alcohol in oral carcinogenesis with particular reference to alcohol-containing mouthwashes. Aust Dent J 53:302–305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Elmore JG, Horwitz RI (1995) Oral cancer and mouthwash use: evaluation of the epidemiologic evidence. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 113:253–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    McKinney J, Wu W (1985) Chemical softening and wear of dental composites. J Dent Res 64:1326–1331PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Sarrett D, Coletti D, Peluso A (2000) The effects of alcoholic beverages on composite wear. Dent Mater 16:62–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    WHO (2002). Traditional Medicine Strategy 2002–2005. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2002/who_edm_trm_2002.1.pdf. Accessed 28 Feburary, 2013
  74. 74.
    Mouhyi J, Del Corso M, Hippolyte MP, Sammartino G, Dohan Ehrenfest DM (2010) Mouthwash solutions containing microencapsulated natural extracts: clinical results on dental plaque and gingivitis. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac 111:144–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Vilova TV, Zenovskii VP, Deviatkova MA (2005) Clinical aspects of use of preparations from seaweeds for caries and gingivitis prevention. Stomatologiia (Mosk) 84:10–14Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kraivaphan V, Kraivaphan P, Amornchat C, Triratana T, Pobrurksa C (1994) The clinical effect of a mouthrinse containing Psidium guajava extract on plaque formation. J Dent Assoc Thai 44:56–60Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Schmidt H, Hampel CM, Schmidt G, Riess E, Rodel C (1980) Double-blind trial of the effect of a propolis-containing mouthwash on inflamed and healthy gingiva. Stomatol DDR 30:491–497PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Willershausen B, Gruber I, Hamm G (1991) The influence of herbal ingredients on the plaque index and bleeding tendency of the gingiva. J Clin Dent 2:75–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Serfaty R, Itic J (1988) Comparative clinical trial with natural herbal mouthwash versus chlorhexidine in gingivitis. J Clin Dent 1 Suppl(A):34–37Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Ehlers V, Helm S, Kasaj A, Willershausen B (2011) The effect of Parodontax® on the MMP-8 concentration in gingivitis patients. Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed 121:1041–1051PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Willershausen B, Kasaj A, Sculean A, Wehrbein H (2004) Influence of an herbal mouthwash on inflammatory changes of the gingiva in patients with fixed orthodontic appliance. PERIO - Periodontal Practice Today 1:255–262Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Tiemann P, Toelg M, Ramos FM (2007) Administration of Ratanhia-based herbal oral care products for the prophylaxis of oral mucositis in cancer chemotherapy patients: a clinical trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 4:361–366PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Khalessi A, Pack A, Thomson W, Tompkins G (2004) An in vivo study of the plaque control efficacy of Persica™: a commercially available herbal mouthwash containing extracts of Salvadora persica. Int Dent J 54:279–283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Moustafa M, Abd e AM, Abo e FK (1987) Reduced plaque formation by miswak-based mouthwash. Egypt Den J 33:375–384Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Pack AR, Thomson ME (1980) Effects of topical and systemic folic acid supplementation on gingivitis in pregnancy. J Clin Periodontol 7:402–414PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Thomson ME, Pack AR (1982) Effects of extended systemic and topical folate supplementation on gingivitis of pregnancy. J Clin Periodontol 9:275–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Pack AR (1986) Effects of folate mouthwash on experimental gingivitis in man. J Clin Periodontol 13:671–676PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Singh A, Daing A, Dixit J (2013) The effect of herbal, essential oil and chlorhexidine mouthrinse on de novo plaque formation. Int J Dent Hyg 11:48–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Jenabian N, Moghadamnia AA, Karami E, Mir APB, Poorsattar A (2012) The effect of Camellia sinensis (green tea) mouthwash on plaque-induced gingivitis: a single-blinded randomized controlled clinical trial. Daru.24;20(1):39 doi: 10.1186/2008-2231-20-39
  90. 90.
    Narayan A, Mendon C (2012) Comparing the effect of different mouthrinses on de novo plaque formation. J Contemp Dent Pract 13:460–463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Lingström P, Zaura E, Hassan H, Buijs MJ, Hedelin P, Pratten J, Spratt D, Daglia M, Karbowiak A, Signoretto C (2012) The anti-caries effect of a food extract (Shiitake) in a short-term clinical study. J Biomed Biotechnol Epub. doi:10.1155/2012/217164 Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Samuels N, Grbic J, Saffer A, Wexler I, Williams R (2012) Effect of an herbal mouth rinse in preventing periodontal inflammation in an experimental gingivitis model: a pilot study. Compend Contin Educ Dent 33:204–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Marchetti E, Mummolo S, Di Mattia J, Casalena F, Di Martino S, Mattei A, et al. (2011) Efficacy of essential oil mouthwash with and without alcohol: a 3-day plaque accumulation model. Trials 15;12:262. doi: 10.1186/1745-6215-12-262
  94. 94.
    Malhotra R, Grover V, Kapoor A, Saxena D (2011) Comparison of the effectiveness of a commercially available herbal mouthrinse with chlorhexidine gluconate at the clinical and patient level. J Indian Soc Periodontol 15:349–352PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Bajaj N, Tandon S (2011) The effect of triphala and chlorhexidine mouthwash on dental plaque, gingival inflammation, and microbial growth. Int J Ayur Res 2:29–36Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Chatterjee A, Saluja M, Singh N, Kandwal A (2011) To evaluate the antigingivitis and antiplaque effect of an Azadirachta indica (neem) mouthrinse on plaque induced gingivitis: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. J Indian Soc of Periodontol 15:398–401Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Waghmare P, Chaudhari A, Karhadkar V, Jamkhande A (2011) Comparative evaluation of turmeric and chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash in prevention of plaque formation and gingivitis: a clinical and microbiological study. J Contemp Dent Pract 12:221–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Bhadbhade SJ, Acharya AB, Rodrigues SV, Thakur SL (2011) The antiplaque efficacy of pomegranate mouthrinse. Quintessence int 42:29–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Asokan S, Kumar RS, Emmadi P, Raghuraman R, Sivakumar N (2011) Effect of oil pulling on halitosis and microorganisms causing halitosis: a randomized controlled pilot trial. J Indian Soc Pedodont Prev Dent 29:90–94Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Awadalla HI, Ragab MH, Bassuoni MW, Fayed MT, Abbas MO (2011) A pilot study of the role of green tea use on oral health. Int J Dent Hyg 9:110–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Al-Bayaty FH, AI-Koubaisi AH, Abdul Wahid Ali N, Abdulla MA (2010) Effect of mouth wash extracted from Salvadora persica (Miswak) on dental plaque formation: a clinical trail. J Med Plants Res 4:1446–1454Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    May AT, Moe WO, Tin HH, Aye T, Thein T, Mya TL (2009) Anti-inflammatory and anti-plaque activity of Ponna yeik (Ixora coccinea Linn.) leaves extract used as a mouthwash on chronic gingivitis patients. Myanm Health Sci Res J 21:26–31Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Asokan S, Emmadi P, Chamundeswari R (2009) Effect of oil pulling on plaque induced gingivitis: a randomized, controlled, triple-blind study. Indian J Dent Res 20:47–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Botelho MA, dos Santos RA, Martins JG, Carvalho CO, Paz MC, Azenha C et al (2009) Comparative effect of an essential oil mouthrinse on plaque, gingivitis and salivary Streptococcus mutans levels: a double blind randomized study. Phytoth Res 23:1214–1219Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Srikanth RK, Shashikiran ND, Subba Reddy VV (2008) Chocolate mouth rinse: effect on plaque accumulation and mutans streptococci counts when used by children. J Indian Soc Pedodont Prev Dent 26:67–70Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Sharma S, Saimbi CS, Koirala B, Shukla R (2008) Effect of various mouthwashes on the levels of interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma in chronic gingivitis. J Clin Pediatr Dent 32:111–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Botelho MA, dos Santos RA, Martins JG, Carvalho CO, Paz MC, Azenha C, Ruela RS, Brito D, Queiroz WSR, Marinho G (2008) Efficacy of a mouthrinse based on leaves of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) in the treatment of patients with chronic gingivitis: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. J Med Plants Res 2:341–346Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Botelho MA, Bezerra Filho JG, Correa LL, Fonseca SG, Montenegro D, Gapski R et al (2007) Effect of a novel essential oil mouthrinse without alcohol on gingivitis: a double-blinded randomized controlled trial. J Appl Oral Sci 15:175–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Rassameemasmaung S, Sirikulsathean A, Amornchat C, Hirunrat K, Rojanapanthu P, Gritsanapan W (2007) Effects of herbal mouthwash containing the pericarp extract of Garcinia mangostana L on halitosis, plaque and papillary bleeding index. J Int Acad Periodontol 9:19–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Matsumoto M, Tsuji M, Okuda J, Sasaki H, Nakano K, Osawa K et al (2004) Inhibitory effects of cacao bean husk extract on plaque formation in vitro and in vivo. Eur J Oral Sci 112:249–252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Koo H, Cury JA, Rosalen PL, Ambrosano GM, Ikegaki M, Park YK (2002) Effect of a mouthrinse containing selected propolis on 3-day dental plaque accumulation and polysaccharide formation. Caries Res 36:445–448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Johansson G, Andersson G, Edwardsson S, Björn AL, Manthorpe R, Attström R (2001) Effects of mouthrinses with linseed extract Salinum without/with chlorhexidine on oral conditions in patients with Sjögren's syndrome. A double-blind crossover investigation. Gerodontol 18:87–94Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Gonzalez Begne M, Yslas N, Reyes E, Quiroz V, Santana J, Jimenez G (2001) Clinical effect of a Mexican sanguinaria extract (Polygonum aviculare L.) on gingivitis. J Ethnopharm 74:45–51Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Arweiler NB, Donos N, Netuschil L, Reich E, Sculean A (2000) Clinical and antibacterial effect of tea tree oil—a pilot study. Clin Oral Invest 4:70–73Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Machuca G, Valencia S, Lacalle JR, Machuca C, Bullon P (1997) A clinical assessment of the effectiveness of a mouthwash based on triclosan and on Zea mays L. used as supplements to brushing. Quintessence Int 28:329–335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Murray MC, Worthington HV, Blinkhorn AS (1997) A study to investigate the effect of a propolis-containing mouthrinse on the inhibition of de novo plaque formation. J Clin Periodontol 24:796–798PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Cullinan MP, Powell RN, Faddy MJ, Seymour GJ (1997) Efficacy of a dentifrice and oral rinse containing sanguinaria extract in conjunction with initial periodontal therapy. Aust Dent J 42:47–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Hunter L, Addy M, Moran J, Kohut B, Hovliaras CA, Newcombe RG (1994) A study of a pre-brushing mouthrinse as an adjunct to oral hygiene. J Periodontol 65:762–765PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Ooshima T, Minami T, Aono W, Tamura Y, Hamada S (1994) Reduction of dental plaque deposition in humans by oolong tea extract. Caries Res 28:146–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Busscher HJ, Perdok JF, van der M (1992) Bacterial growth inhibition and short-term clinical efficacy of a vegetable oil-based mouthrinse: preliminary study. Clin Prev Dent 14:5–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Quirynen M, Marechal M, van Steenberghe D (1990) Comparative antiplaque activity of sanguinarine and chlorhexidine in man. J Clin Periodontol 17:223–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Grossman E, Meckel AH, Isaacs RL, Ferretti GA, Sturzenberger OP, Bollmer BW, Moore DJ, Lijana RC, Manhart MD (1989) A clinical comparison of antibacterial mouthrinses: effects of chlorhexidine, phenolics, and sanguinarine on dental plaque and gingivitis. J Periodontol 60:435–440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Miller R, McIver J, Gunsolley J (1988) Effects of sanguinaria extract on plaque retention and gingival health. J Clin Orthod 22(5):304–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Southard GL, Parsons LG, Thomas LG, Boulware RT, Woodall IR, Jones BJ (1987) The relationship of sanguinaria extract concentration and zinc ion to plaque and gingivitis. J Clin Periodontol 14:315–319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Southard GL, Parsons LG, Thomas LG, Woodall IR, Jones BJ (1987) Effect of sanguinaria extract on development of plaque and gingivitis when supragingivally delivered as a manual rinse or under pressure in an oral irrigator. J Clin Periodontol 14:377–380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Parsons LG, Thomas LG, Southard GL, Woodall IR, Jones BJ (1987) Effect of sanguinaria extract on established plaque and gingivitis when supragingivally delivered as a manual rinse or under pressure in an oral irrigator. J Clin Periodontol 14:381–385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Etemadzadeh H, Ainamo J (1987) Lacking anti-plaque efficacy of 2 sanguinarine mouth rinses. J Clin Periodontol 14:176–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Gross KB, Overman PR, Clark BR, Eberhart A, Love J (1987) Sanguinarine and essential oil mouthrinses. Effects on plaque and gingivitis. J Dent Hyg 61:62–66Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Wennström J, Lindhe J (1985) Some effects of a Sanguinarine-containing mouthrinse on developing plaque and gingivitis. J Clin Periodontol 12:867–872PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yong Chen
    • 1
  • Ricky WK Wong
    • 2
    • 5
  • Colman McGrath
    • 3
  • Urban Hagg
    • 2
  • C Jayampath Seneviratne
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of OrthodonticsAffiliated Stomatological Hospital of Fujian Medical UniversityFujianChina
  2. 2.Discipline of Orthodontics, Faculty of DentistryThe University of Hong KongHong KongChina
  3. 3.Discipline of Dental Public Health, Faculty of DentistryThe University of Hong KongHong KongChina
  4. 4.Discipline of Oral Sciences, Faculty of DentistryNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore
  5. 5.OrthodonticsPrince Philip Dental HospitalHong KongChina

Personalised recommendations