Advertisement

Clinical Oral Investigations

, Volume 17, Issue 8, pp 1961–1964 | Cite as

Herpes simplex virus reactivation and dental procedures

  • L. El Hayderi
  • P. Delvenne
  • E. Rompen
  • J. M. Senterre
  • A. F. NikkelsEmail author
Short Communication

Abstract

Objectives

Dental extraction is reported to trigger recurrent herpes labialis (RHL).

Aim

This aims to prospectively study the clinical occurrence of RHL and the oral herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) viral shedding before and 3 days after different dental procedures.

Materials and methods

Oral HSV-1 DNA was measured by real-time PCR before and 3 days after dental procedures of the inferior dentition in 57 immunocompetent patients (mean age 32.4 years) who were selected and divided into four distinct subgroups (dental inspection without anesthesia, n = 19; dental filling under local anesthesia, n = 14; molar extraction under local anesthesia, n = 15; and molar extraction under general anesthesia, n = 9) and compared to 32 healthy controls (mean age 33 years).

Results

None of the patients suffered from RHL at day 3. Oral HSV-1 DNA was detected before and after procedure in 1.7 % (1/57) and 5.3 % (3/57), respectively [dental inspection without anesthesia, 5.3 % (1/19); molar extraction under local anesthesia, 6.7 % (1/15); and molar extraction under general anesthesia, 11 % (1/9)]. None of the controls presented RHL or detectable oral HSV-1 DNA. There was no statistically significant difference between the study groups and controls.

Conclusion

Molar extraction increases the risk of oral HSV-1 shedding but not of RHL. Procedure-related nerve damage probably accounts for HSV reactivation.

Clinical relevance

Antiviral prophylaxis for RHL is not routinely recommended for dental procedures, regardless of a prior history of RHL.

Keywords

Herpes simplex virus Herpes labialis Dental extraction Anesthesia Triggering factors 

Notes

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest

References

  1. 1.
    Mindel A (1989) Herpes simplex virus. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 1–164Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Overall JC (1979) Dermatologic viral diseases. In: Gallasso GJ, Merigan TC, Buchanan RA (eds) Antiviral agents and viral diseases of man, 2nd edn. Raven, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Embil JA, Stephens G, Manuel FR (1975) Prevalence of recurrent herpes labialis and aphtous ulcers among young adults in six continents. Can Med Assoc J 113:627–630PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Reichart PA (2000) Oral mucosal lesions in a representative cross-sectional study of aging Germans. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 28:390–398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Young SK, Rowe NH, Buchanan RA (1976) A clinical study for the control of facial mucocutaneous herpes virus infections: I. Characterization of natural history in a professional school population. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 41:498–507PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nikkels AF, Piérard GE (2002) Current treatments of muco-cutaneous herpes simplex virus infections. Curr Med Chem- Anti-Infective Agents 1:83–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nikkels AF, Piérard GE (2002) Treatment of muco-cutaneous presentations of herpes simplex virus infections. Am J Clin Dermatol 3:475–487PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Spruance SL, Overall JC, Kern ER, Krueger GG, Pliam V, Miller W (1977) The natural history of recurrent herpes simplex labialis. N Eng J Med 297:69–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Guggenheimer J, Fletcher RD (1974) Traumatic induction of an intraoral reinfection with herpes simplex virus. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 38:546–549PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kameyama T, Sujaku C, Yamamoto S, Hwang CB, Shillitoe EJ (1988) Shedding of herpes simplex virus type 1 into saliva. J Oral Pathol 17:478–481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kameyama T, Futami M, Nakayoshi N, Sujaku C, Yamamoto S (1989) Shedding of herpes simplex virus type 1 into saliva in patients with orofacial fracture. J Med Virol 28:78–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kameyama T, Haikata K, Nakamura Y, Murase H, Yamamoto S (1989) Shedding of herpes simplex virus type 1 into saliva after surgery for oral and genital or urological cancer patients. Kurume Med J 36:117–121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Marques-Silva L, Castro WH, Gomez EL, Guimarães AL, Silva MS, Gomez RS (2000) The impact of dental surgery on HSV-1 reactivation in the oral mucosa of seropositive patients. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 65:2269–2272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Miller GS, Cunningham LL, Lindroth JE, Avdiushko SA (2004) The efficacy of valacylovir in preventing herpes simplex virus infections associated with dental procedures. J Am Dent Ass 135:1331–1338Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Miller GS, Avdiushko SA, Kryscio RJ, Danaher RJ, Jacob RJ (2005) Effect of prophylactic valacyclovir on the presence of human herpes virus DNA in saliva of healthy individuals after dental treatment. J Clin Microbiol 43:2173–2180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Miller CS, Danaher RJ (2008) Asymptomatic shedding of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in the oral cavity. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 105:43–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Openshaw H, Bennet HE (1982) Recurrence of herpes simplex virus after dental extraction. J Infect Dis 146:707PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Scott DA, Coulter WA, Lamey PJ (1997) Oral shedding of herpes simplex virus type 1: a review. J Oral Pathol Med 26:441–447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Williamson RT (1999) Diagnosis and management of recurrent herpes simplex induced by fixed prosthodontic tissue management: a clinical report. J Prosthetic Dentistry 82:1–2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shimizu F, Monma Y, Sekizawa T, Kamiyama K (1989) Establishment of latent ganglionic infection with herpes simplex virus via maxillary gingiva and viral re-activation in vivo after trauma. J Dent Res 68:472–475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yura Y, Kusaka J, Yamakawa R, Bando T, Yoshida H, Sato M (2000) Mental nerve neuropathy as a result of primary herpes simplex virus infection in the oral cavity. A case report. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 90:306–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    El Hayderi L, Raty L, Failla V, Caucanas M, Paurobally D, Nikkels AF (2011) Severe herpes simplex virus type 1 infections after dental procedures. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 16:e15–e18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Simon E, Matee M (2001) Post-extraction complications seen at a referral dental clinic in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. Intern Dental J 51:273–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kriesel JD, Pisani PL, McKeough MB, Baringer JR, Spruance SL (1994) Correlation between detection of herpes simplex virus in oral secretions by PCR and susceptibility to experimental UV radiation-induced herpes labialis. J Clin Microbiol 32:3088–3090PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Youssef R, Shaker O, Sobeih S, Mashaly H, Mostafa WZ (2002) Detection of herpes simplex virus DNA in serum and oral secretions during acute recurrent herpes labialis. J Dermatol 29:404–410PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. El Hayderi
    • 1
  • P. Delvenne
    • 2
  • E. Rompen
    • 3
  • J. M. Senterre
    • 4
  • A. F. Nikkels
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of DermatologyUniversity Medical Center LiègeLiègeBelgium
  2. 2.Department of PathologyUniversity Medical Center LiègeLiègeBelgium
  3. 3.Department of DentistryUniversity Medical Center LiègeLiègeBelgium
  4. 4.Department of Clinical BiologyCHR CitadelleLiègeBelgium

Personalised recommendations