Light curing through glass ceramics with a second- and a third-generation LED curing unit: effect of curing mode on the degree of conversion of dual-curing resin cements
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The aim of this study was to measure the degree of conversion (DC) of five dual-curing resin cements after different curing modes with a second- and a third-generation light-emitting diode (LED) curing unit. Additionally, irradiance of both light curing units was measured at increasing distances and through discs of two glass ceramics for computer-aided design/manufacturing (CAD/CAM).
Materials and methods
Irradiance and spectra of the Elipar FreeLight 2 (Standard Mode (SM)) and of the VALO light curing unit (High Power Mode (HPM) and Xtra Power Mode (XPM)) were measured with a MARC radiometer. Irradiance was measured at increasing distances (control) and through discs (1.5 to 6 mm thickness) of IPS Empress CAD and IPS e.max CAD. DC of Panavia F2.0, RelyX Unicem 2 Automix, SpeedCEM, BisCem, and BeautiCem SA was measured with an attenuated total reflectance–Fourier transform infrared spectrometer when self-cured (negative control) or light cured in SM for 40 s, HPM for 32 s, or XPM for 18 s. Light curing was performed directly (positive control) or through discs of either 1.5- or 3-mm thickness of IPS Empress CAD or IPS e.max CAD. DC was analysed with Kruskal–Wallis tests followed by pairwise Wilcoxon rank sum tests (α = 0.05).
Maximum irradiances were 1,545 mW/cm2 (SM), 2,179 mW/cm2 (HPM), and 4,156 mW/cm2 (XPM), and all irradiances decreased by >80 % through discs of 1.5 mm, ≥95 % through 3 mm, and up to >99 % through 6 mm. Generally, self-curing resulted in the lowest DC. For some cements, direct light curing did not result in higher DC compared to when light cured through ceramic discs. For other cements, light curing through ceramic discs of 3 mm generally reduced DC.
Light curing was favourable for dual-curing cements. Some cements were more susceptible to variations in curing mode than others.
When light curing a given cement, the higher irradiances of the third-generation LED curing unit resulted in similar DC compared to the second-generation one, though at shorter light curing times.
KeywordsLuting resins Polymerization Light intensity Curing light Radiant exposure Degree of cure
S. Flury was supported by a grant (grant number: PB BEP3_136565) of the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF, www.snf.ch). Furthermore, we thank S. Hayoz and Prof. Dr. J. Hüsler, Institute of Mathematical Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Bern, for statistical analyses as well as Dr. A. Peutzfeldt for the scientific commentaries on the manuscript.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest, real or perceived, financial or non-financial.
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