Clinical Oral Investigations

, Volume 17, Issue 9, pp 2105–2112 | Cite as

Radiographic examination of apical extrusion of root canal irrigants during cavitation induced by Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation: an in vivo study

Original Article



The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that apical extrusion of the irrigant occurs during laser-driven irrigation in vivo.

Materials and methods

Three hundred human root canals, in 181 patients, were divided into two groups: the no lesion group (n = 140) and the lesion group (n = 160). All the root canals were enlarged using a crown down technique up to size 30–80 K-files, depending on the original condition of the root canal. For the final irrigation, the teeth were irrigated with a mixture of radiopaque contrast medium and NaOCl in solution. The solution was activated for 60 s in teeth with one canal or two canals and for 120 s in teeth with three or four canals.


Radiopaque contrast medium was absent from the periapical tissues of all samples.


No contrast medium was observed radiographically in the periapical tissues. The hypothesis that apical extrusion of root canal irrigants occur during laser cavitation was rejected

Clinical relevance

It appears that the power of the laser used at 1 W for 1–2 min can drive the irrigation solution to the tip of the canal without harming the apical tissues.


Apical extrusion Cavitation Contrast Laser-driven irrigation 



The authors wish to thank Dr. Erma Charlotte, Giovanno and Paramitha for their excellent support.

Conflict of interest

The authors deny any conflicts of interest related to this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laser Research CenterWest JavaIndonesia
  2. 2.Department of Endodontics, School of DentistryUniversity of AirlanggaSurabayaIndonesia

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