Clinical Oral Investigations

, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 275–283 | Cite as

Anti-inflammatory effects of EMD in the presence of biomechanical loading and interleukin-1β in vitro

  • Marjan Nokhbehsaim
  • Birgit Deschner
  • Jochen Winter
  • Christoph Bourauel
  • Andreas Jäger
  • Søren Jepsen
  • James Deschner
Original Article


Enamel matrix derivative (EMD) used to promote periodontal regeneration has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects. This in vitro study was performed to investigate if the anti-inflammatory actions of EMD are modulated by the local cellular environment, such as inflammation or occlusal, i.e., biomechanical, loading. Human periodontal ligament cells were seeded on BioFlex plates and incubated with EMD under normal, inflammatory, and biomechanical loading conditions for 1 and 6 days. In order to mimic inflammatory and biomechanical loading conditions in vitro, cells were stimulated with interleukin (IL)-1β and exposed to dynamic tensile strain, respectively. The gene expression of IL-1β, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RN), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR and the IL-6 protein synthesis by enzyme-linked immunoassay. For statistical analysis, Student's t test, ANOVA, and post-hoc comparison tests were applied (p < 0.05). EMD downregulated significantly the expression of IL-1β and COX-2 at 1 day and of IL-6, IL-8, and COX-2 at 6 days in normal condition. In an inflammatory environment, the anti-inflammatory actions of EMD were significantly enhanced at 6 days. In the presence of low biomechanical loading, EMD caused a downregulation of IL-1β and IL-8, whereas high biomechanical loading significantly abrogated the anti-inflammatory effects of EMD at both days. Neither IL-1RN nor IL-10 was upregulated by EMD. These data suggest that high occlusal forces may abrogate anti-inflammatory effects of EMD and should, therefore, be avoided immediately after the application of EMD to achieve best healing results.


EMD Wound healing Biomechanical loading Inflammation Periodontium 



This study was supported by a grant from the German Research Foundation (Clinical Research Unit 208/TP4) and the Medical Faculty of the University of Bonn. We would like to thank Marcel Drolshagen, Katharina Reifenrath, and Susanne Reimann for their great support.

Conflicts of interest

EMD was provided by Straumann AG (Switzerland).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marjan Nokhbehsaim
    • 1
    • 2
  • Birgit Deschner
    • 1
    • 3
  • Jochen Winter
    • 2
  • Christoph Bourauel
    • 1
    • 4
  • Andreas Jäger
    • 1
    • 3
  • Søren Jepsen
    • 1
    • 2
  • James Deschner
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Clinical Research Unit 208, Center of Dento-Maxillo-Facial MedicineUniversity of BonnBonnGermany
  2. 2.Department of Periodontology, Operative and Preventive Dentistry, Center of Dento-Maxillo-Facial MedicineUniversity of BonnBonnGermany
  3. 3.Department of Orthodontics, Center of Dento-Maxillo-Facial MedicineUniversity of BonnBonnGermany
  4. 4.Oral Technology, Center of Dento-Maxillo-Facial MedicineUniversity of BonnBonnGermany

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