Effect of surface treatment on the initial bond strength of different luting cements to zirconium oxide ceramic

Original Article


The objective of this study was to compare the shear bond strength to zirconium oxide ceramic of adhesive-phosphate-monomer-containing (APM) and non-APM-containing (nAPM) luting cements after different surface treatments. nAPM cements: Bifix QM, Dual Cement, Duo Cement Plus, Multilink Automix, ParaCem Universal DC, PermaCem Smartmix, RelyX ARC, Variolink Ultra, and Variolink II; APM cements: Panavia EX, Panavia F2.0, and RelyX UniCem. Groups of ten test specimens were each prepared by layering luting cement, using cylindrical Teflon molds, onto differently treated zirconium dioxide discs. The surface treatments were airborne-particle abrasion with 110 μm alumina particles, silica coating (SC) using 30 μm alumina particles modified by silica (Rocatec System) or SC and silanization. Bifix QM and Multilink Automix were used in combination with an additional bonding/priming agent recommended by the manufacturers. After 48 h of water storage, each specimen was subjected to a shear test. Combinations involving APM-containing cements (14.41–23.88 MPa) generally exhibited higher shear bond strength than those without APM (4.29–17.34 MPa). Exceptions were Bifix QM (14.20–25.11 MPa) and Multilink Automix (19.14–23.09 MPa) in combination with system-specific silane or priming agent, which were on the upper end of shear bond strength values. With the use of the Rocatec system, a partially significant increase in shear bond strength could be achieved in nAPM cement. Modified surface treatment modalities increased the bond strength to zirconium oxide, although the most important factor in achieving a strong bond was the selection of a suitable cement. System-specific priming or bonding agents lead to further improvement.


Bond strength Luting cements Zirconium oxide Surface treatment Ceramic Zirconia 



The authors would like to thank all named companies for providing the materials used in this study.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Abo-Hamar SE, Hiller KA, Jung H, Federlin M, Friedl KH, Schmalz G (2005) Bond strength of a new universal self-adhesive resin luting cement to dentin and enamel. Clin Oral Investig 9:161–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Atsu SS, Kilicarslan MA, Kucukesmen HC, Aka PS (2006) Effect of zirconium-oxide ceramic surface treatments on the bond strength to adhesive resin. J Prosthet Dent 95:430–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Blatz MB, Chiche G, Holst S, Sadan A (2007) Influence of surface treatment and simulated aging on bond strengths of luting agents to zirconia. Quintessence Int 38:745–753PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Della Bona A, Anusavice KJ, Hood JA (2002) Effect of ceramic surface treatment on tensile bond strength to a resin cement. Int J Prosthodont 15:248–253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Della Bona A, Northeast SE (1994) Shear bond strength of resin bonded ceramic after different try-in procedures. J Dent 22:103–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Della Bona A, van Noort R (1995) Shear vs. tensile bond strength of resin composite bonded to ceramic. J Dent Res 74:1591–1596PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Derand P, Derand T (2000) Bond strength of luting cements to zirconium oxide ceramics. Int J Prosthodont 13:131–135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Edelhoff D, Sorensen JA (2002) Retention of selected core materials to zirconia posts. Oper Dent 27:455–461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ernst CP, Cohnen U, Stender E, Willershausen B (2005) In vitro retentive strength of zirconium oxide ceramic crowns using different luting agents. J Prosthet Dent 93:551–558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Glauser R, Sailer I, Wohlwend A, Studer S, Schibli M, Scharer P (2004) Experimental zirconia abutments for implant-supported single-tooth restorations in esthetically demanding regions: 4 year results of a prospective clinical study. Int J Prosthodont 17:285–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Janda R, Roulet JF, Wulf M, Tiller HJ (2003) A new adhesive technology for all-ceramics. Dent Mater 19:567–573PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jeong SM, Ludwig K, Kern M (2002) Investigation of the fracture resistance of three types of zirconia posts in all-ceramic post-and-core restorations. Int J Prosthodont 15:154–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kern M, Thompson VP (1994) Sandblasting and silica coating of a glass-infiltrated alumina ceramic: volume loss, morphology, and changes in the surface composition. J Prosthet Dent 71:453–461PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kern M, Wegner SM (1998) Bonding to zirconia ceramic: adhesion methods and their durability. Dent Mater 14:64–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kilicarslan MA, Kedici PS, Kucukesmen HC, Uludag BC (2004) In vitro fracture resistance of posterior metal-ceramic and all-ceramic inlay-retained resin-bonded fixed partial dentures. J Prosthet Dent 92:365–370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kim BK, Bae HE, Shim JS, Lee KW (2005) The influence of ceramic surface treatments on the tensile bond strength of composite resin to all-ceramic coping materials. J Prosthet Dent 94:357–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Luthy H, Loeffel O, Hammerle CH (2006) Effect of thermocycling on bond strength of luting cements to zirconia ceramic. Dent Mater 22:195–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Matinlinna JP, Heikkinen T, Ozcan M, Lassila LV, Vallittu PK (2006) Evaluation of resin adhesion to zirconia ceramic using some organosilanes. Dent Mater 22:824–831PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nicholls JI (1988) Tensile bond of resin cements to porcelain veneers. J Prosthet Dent 60:443–447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nothdurft FP, Gernet W, Pospiech PR (2003) In vitro Untersuchungen zu vollkeramischen Stiftaufbauten aus Zirkonoxid. Dtsch Zahnärztl Z 58:451–456Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nothdurft FP, Pospiech PR (2006) Clinical evaluation of pulpless teeth restored with conventionally cemented zirconia posts: a pilot study. J Prosthet Dent 95:311–314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ozcan M, Kerkdijk S, Valandro LF (2008) Comparison of resin cement adhesion to Y-TZP ceramic following manufacturers’ instructions of the cements only. Clin Oral Investig 12:279–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ozcan M, Vallittu PK (2003) Effect of surface conditioning methods on the bond strength of luting cement to ceramics. Dent Mater 19:725–731PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Palacios RP, Johnson GH, Phillips KM, Raigrodski AJ (2006) Retention of zirconium oxide ceramic crowns with three types of cement. J Prosthet Dent 96:104–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Paul SJ, Werder P (2004) Clinical success of zirconium oxide posts with resin composite or glass-ceramic cores in endodontically treated teeth: a 4 year retrospective study. Int J Prosthodont 17:524–528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Piwowarczyk A, Lauer HC, Sorensen JA (2005) The shear bond strength between luting cements and zirconia ceramics after two pre-treatments. Oper Dent 30:382–388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Potiket N, Chiche G, Finger IM (2004) In vitro fracture strength of teeth restored with different all-ceramic crown systems. J Prosthet Dent 92:491–495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Raigrodski AJ (2004) Contemporary materials and technologies for all-ceramic fixed partial dentures: a review of the literature. J Prosthet Dent 92:557–562PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sahafi A, Peutzfeldt A, Asmussen E, Gotfredsen K (2003) Bond strength of resin cement to dentin and to surface-treated posts of titanium alloy, glass fiber, and zirconia. J Adhes Dent 5:153–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sailer I, Feher A, Filser F, Gauckler LJ, Luthy H, Hammerle CH (2007) Five-year clinical results of zirconia frameworks for posterior fixed partial dentures. Int J Prosthodont 20:383–388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tinschert J, Natt G, Mautsch W, Augthun M, Spiekermann H (2001) Fracture resistance of lithium disilicate-, alumina-, and zirconia-based three-unit fixed partial dentures: a laboratory study. Int J Prosthodont 14:231–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Uo M, Sjogren G, Sundh A, Goto M, Watari F, Bergman M (2006) Effect of surface condition of dental zirconia ceramic (Denzir) on bonding. Dent Mater J 25:626–631PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Vult von Steyern P (2005) All-ceramic fixed partial dentures. Studies on aluminum oxide- and zirconium dioxide-based ceramic systems. Swed Dent J Suppl:1–69Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Vult von Steyern P, Carlson P, Nilner K (2005) All-ceramic fixed partial dentures designed according to the DC-Zirkon technique. A 2 year clinical study. J Oral Rehabil 32:180–187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Vult von Steyern P, Ebbesson S, Holmgren J, Haag P, Nilner K (2006) Fracture strength of two oxide ceramic crown systems after cyclic pre-loading and thermocycling. J Oral Rehabil 33:682–689PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wegner SM, Gerdes W, Kern M (2002) Effect of different artificial aging conditions on ceramic-composite bond strength. Int J Prosthodont 15:267–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wegner SM, Kern M (2000) Long-term resin bond strength to zirconia ceramic. J Adhes Dent 2:139–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wolfart S, Kern M (2006) A new design for all-ceramic inlay-retained fixed partial dentures: a report of 2 cases. Quintessence Int 37:27–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Yang B, Lange-Jansen HC, Scharnberg M, Wolfart S, Ludwig K, Adelung R et al (2008) Influence of saliva contamination on zirconia ceramic bonding. Dent Mater 24:508–513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Yildirim M, Fischer H, Marx R, Edelhoff D (2003) In vivo fracture resistance of implant-supported all-ceramic restorations. J Prosthet Dent 90:325–331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Yoshida K, Kamada K, Atsuta M (1999) Adhesive primers for bonding cobalt-chromium alloy to resin. J Oral Rehabil 26:475–478PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Yoshida K, Tsuo Y, Atsuta M (2006) Bonding of dual-cured resin cement to zirconia ceramic using phosphate acid ester monomer and zirconate coupler. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 77:28–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Yoshida K, Yamashita M, Atsuta M (2004) Zirconate coupling agent for bonding resin luting cement to pure zirconium. Am J Dent 17:249–252PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. P. Nothdurft
    • 1
  • P. J. Motter
    • 1
  • P. R. Pospiech
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Prosthetic Dentistry and Dental Materials SciencesDental School and Clinics, Saarland UniversityHomburg/SaarGermany

Personalised recommendations