In vitro and in vivo studies on the toxicity of dental resin components: a review
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- Goldberg, M. Clin Oral Invest (2008) 12: 1. doi:10.1007/s00784-007-0162-8
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In vitro and in vivo studies have clearly identified that some components of restorative composite resins, adhesives, and resin-modified glass ionomer cements are toxic. The mechanisms of cytotoxicity are related firstly to the short-term release of free monomers occurring during the monomer–polymer conversion. Secondly, long-term release of leachable substances is generated by erosion and degradation over time. In addition, ion release and proliferation of bacteria located at the interface between the restorative material and dental tissues are also implicated in the tissue response. Molecular mechanisms involve glutathione depletion and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production as key factors leading to pulp or gingival cell apoptosis. Experimental animal approaches substantiate the occurrence of allergic reactions. There is a large gap between the results published by research laboratories and clinical reports.