Personal and Ubiquitous Computing

, Volume 18, Issue 7, pp 1667–1676 | Cite as

Social interaction and reflection for behaviour change

  • Bernd Ploderer
  • Wolfgang Reitberger
  • Harri Oinas-Kukkonen
  • Julia van Gemert-Pijnen
Editorial

Abstract

This article introduces the theme issue on social interaction and reflection for behaviour change. A large body of research exists on systems designed to help users in changing their behaviours, for instance, to exercise more regularly or to reduce energy consumption. Increasingly, these systems focus on multiple users, often to encourage open-ended reflection rather than prescribing a particular course of action. As background for this theme issue, this article presents a literature review on behaviour change support systems that focus on social interaction and reflection. The review highlights five key approaches amongst these systems: social traces, social support, collective use, reflection-in-action, and reflection-on-action. Each approach offers unique benefits, but also challenges for the design of behaviour change support systems. We highlight how the articles in this theme issue contribute to our current understanding of these five approaches, and beyond that, set out some broad directions for future work.

Keywords

Persuasive technology Behaviour change Behaviour change support systems Social interaction Social support Reflection 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This theme issue is the outcome of the First International Workshop on Behaviour Change Support Systems (BCSS) held at the Eighth International Conference on Persuasive Technology held in Sydney, Australia in April 2013. The editors would like to thank their co-convener Sitwat Langrial and the participants of this workshop for their assistance with this theme issue. We would like to thank our supportive expert reviewers: Nilufar Baghaei, Annemarie Braakman, Shanton Chang, Rik Crutzen, Brian Cugelman, Sebastian Deterding, Marc Fabri, Eva Ganglbauer, Florian Güldenpfennig, Giulio Jacucci, Pasi Karppinen, Saskia Kelders, Rilla Khaled, Olga Kulyk, Tuck Leong, Geke Ludden, Marianna Obrist, Hans Ossebaard, Wally Smith, Terje Solvoll, Wolfgang Spreicer, Agnis Stibe, Kristian Torning, Roos van der Vaart, Greg Wadley, and Jobke Wentzel. This research was supported by the Cancer Council Victoria and the Australian Research Council (ARC), grant LP110100046. This research was part of the OASIS research group of Martti Ahtisaari Institute, University of Oulu. This study was supported by the SalWe Research Program for Mind and Body (Tekes—The Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation grant 1104/10).

References

  1. 1.
    Berkovsky S, Freyne J, Coombe M (2012) Physical activity motivating games: be active and get your own reward. ACM Trans Comput Human Interact (TOCHI) 19(4):1–41. doi:10.1145/2395131.2395139 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rodríguez M, Roa J, Morán A, Nava-Muñoz S (2012) CAMMInA: a mobile ambient information system to motivate elders to exercise. Pers Ubiquitous Comput 17(6):1127–1134. doi:10.1007/s00779-012-0561-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Linehan C, Leeman T, Borrowdale C, Lawson S (2013) Crowd saucing: social technology for encouraging healthier eating. Interactions 20(1):53–57. doi:10.1145/2405716.2405729 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Orji R, Vassileva J, Mandryk R (2013) LunchTime: a slow-casual game for long-term dietary behavior change. Pers Ubiquitous Comput 17(6):1211–1221. doi:10.1007/s00779-012-0590-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Van Gemert-Pijnen EJ, Kelders MS, Bohlmeijer TE (2014) Understanding the usage of content in a mental health intervention for depression: an analysis of log data. J Med Internet Res 16(1):e27. doi:10.2196/jmir.2991 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Khaled R, Fischer R, Noble J, Biddle R (2008) A qualitative study of culture and persuasion in a smoking cessation game. In: Proceedings of PERSUASIVE 2008. Springer, Berlin, pp 233–245. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-68504-3_20
  7. 7.
    Ploderer B, Smith W, Pearce J, Borland R (2014) A mobile app offering distractions and tips to cope with cigarette craving: a qualitative study. JMIR mHealth uHealth 2(2):e23. doi:10.2196/mhealth.3209 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Katzeff C, Broms L, Jönsson L, Westholm U, Räsänen M (2013) Exploring sustainable practices in workplace settings through visualizing electricity consumption. ACM Trans Comput Human Interact (TOCHI) 20(5):1–22. doi:10.1145/2501526 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pierce J, Paulos E (2012) Beyond energy monitors: interaction, energy, and emerging energy systems. In: Proceedings of CHI 2012. ACM, New York, pp 665–674. doi:10.1145/2207676.2207771
  10. 10.
    Froehlich J, Findlater L, Ostergren M, Ramanathan S, Peterson J, Wragg I, Larson E, Fu F, Bai M, Patel S, Landay JA (2012) The design and evaluation of prototype eco-feedback displays for fixture-level water usage data. In: Proceedings of CHI 2012. ACM, New York, pp 2367–2376. doi:10.1145/2207676.2208397
  11. 11.
    Pearce J, Smith W, Nansen B, Murphy J (2009) SmartGardenWatering: experiences of using a garden watering simulation. In: Proceedings of OZCHI 2009. ACM, New York, pp 217–224. doi:10.1145/1738826.1738861
  12. 12.
    Comber R, Thieme A (2013) Designing beyond habit: opening space for improved recycling and food waste behaviors through processes of persuasion, social influence and aversive affect. Pers Ubiquitous Comput 17(6):1197–1210. doi:10.1007/s00779-012-0587-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ganglbauer E, Fitzpatrick G, Comber R (2013) Negotiating food waste: using a practice lens to inform design. ACM Trans Comput Human Interact (TOCHI) 20(2):1–25. doi:10.1145/2463579.2463582 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Froehlich J, Dillahunt T, Klasnja P, Mankoff J, Consolvo S, Harrison B, Landay JA (2009) UbiGreen: investigating a mobile tool for tracking and supporting green transportation habits. In: Proceedings of CHI 2009. ACM, New York, pp 1043–1052. doi:10.1145/1518701.1518861
  15. 15.
    Reitberger W, Kastenmiller M, Fitzpatrick G (2013) Invisible work: an ambient system for awareness and reflection of household tasks. In: Berkovsky S, Freyne J (eds) Persuasive Technology, vol 7822. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 180–191. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-37157-8_22
  16. 16.
    Reitberger W, Güldenpfennig F, Fitzpatrick G (2012) Persuasive technology considered harmful? an exploration of design concerns through the TV companion. In: Bang M, Ragnemalm E (eds) Persuasive Technology. Design for Health and Safety, vol 7284. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 239–250. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-31037-9_21
  17. 17.
    Bickmore T, Mauer D, Crespo F, Brown T (2007) Persuasion, task interruption and health regimen adherence. In: Kort Y, Ijsselsteijn W, Midden C, Eggen B, Fogg BJ (eds) Persuasive Technology, vol 4744. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 1–11. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-77006-0_1
  18. 18.
    Dabbish L, Kraut RE (2004) Controlling interruptions: awareness displays and social motivation for coordination. In: Proceedings of CSCW 2004. ACM, New York, pp 182–191. doi:10.1145/1031607.1031638
  19. 19.
    Fogg B (2002) Persuasive technology: using computers to change what we think and do. Morgan Kaufmann, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hekler EB, Klasnja P, Froehlich JE, Buman MP (2013) Mind the theoretical gap: interpreting, using, and developing behavioral theory in HCI research. In: Proceedings of CHI 2013. ACM, New York. doi:10.1145/2470654.2466452
  21. 21.
    Oinas-Kukkonen H (2013) A foundation for the study of behavior change support systems. Pers Ubiquitous Comput 17(6):1223–1235. doi:10.1007/s00779-012-0591-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Brynjarsdottir H, Hakansson M, Pierce J, Baumer E, DiSalvo C, Sengers P (2012) Sustainably unpersuaded: how persuasion narrows our vision of sustainability. In: Proceedings of the 2012 ACM annual conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM, Austin, Texas, USA, pp 947–956. doi:10.1145/2207676.2208539
  23. 23.
    Baumer EPS, Katz SJ, Freeman JE, Adams P, Gonzales AL, Pollak J, Retelny D, Niederdeppe J, Olson CM, Gay GK (2012) Prescriptive persuasion and open-ended social awareness: expanding the design space of mobile health. In: Proceedings of CSCW 2012. ACM, New York, pp 475–484. doi:10.1145/2145204.2145279
  24. 24.
    He HA, Greenberg S, Huang EM (2010) One size does not fit all: Applying the transtheoretical model to energy feedback technology design. In: Proceedings of CHI 2010. ACM, New York, pp 927–936. doi:10.1145/1753326.1753464
  25. 25.
    Ploderer B, Smith W, Howard S, Pearce J, Borland R (2012) Patterns of support in an online community for smoking cessation. In: Proceedings of C&T 2013. ACM, New York, pp 1511–1514. doi:10.1145/2207676.2208613
  26. 26.
    Fritz T, Huang EM, Murphy GC, Zimmermann T (2014) Persuasive technology in the real world: a study of long-term use of activity sensing devices for fitness. In: Proceedings of CHI 2014. ACM, New York, pp 487–496. doi:10.1145/2556288.2557383
  27. 27.
    Choe EK, Lee NB, Lee B, Pratt W, Kientz JA (2014) Understanding quantified-selfers’ practices in collecting and exploring personal data. In: Proceedings of CHI 2014. ACM, New York, pp 1143–1152. doi:10.1145/2556288.2557372
  28. 28.
    Gustafsson A, Gyllenswärd M (2005) The power-aware cord: energy awareness through ambient information display. In: Extended abstracts of CHI 2005. ACM, New York, pp 1423–1426. doi:10.1145/1056808.1056932
  29. 29.
    Asch SE (1955) Studies of independence and conformity: a minority of one against a unanimous majority. Psychol Monogr 70:1–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Christakis NA, Fowler JH (2009) Connected: the surprising power of our social networks and how they shape our lives. Little Brown and Co., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Oinas-Kukkonen H, Oinas-Kukkonen H (2013) Humanizing the web: change and social innovation. Palgrave Macmillan, BasingstokeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kim S, Paulos E (2010) InAir: sharing indoor air quality measurements and visualizations. In: Proceedings of CHI. ACM, New York, pp 1861–1870. doi:10.1145/1753326.1753605
  33. 33.
    Reitberger W, Ploderer B, Obermair C, Tscheligi M (2007) The perCues framework and its application for sustainable mobility. In: Proceedings of PERSUASIVE 2007, vol 4744. Springer, Berlin, pp 92–95. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-77006-0_11
  34. 34.
    Dolan P, Britain G (2010) MINDSPACE: Influencing behaviour through public policy. Cabinet OfficeGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kalnikaitė V, Bird J, Rogers Y (2013) Decision-making in the aisles: informing, overwhelming or nudging supermarket shoppers? Pers Ubiquitous Comput 17(6):1247–1259. doi:10.1007/s00779-012-0589-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kjeldskov J, Skov MB, Paay J, Pathmanathan R (2012) Using mobile phones to support sustainability: a field study of residential electricity consumption. In: Proceedings of CHI 2012. ACM, New York, pp 2347–2356. doi:10.1145/2208276.2208395
  37. 37.
    Erickson T, Li M, Kim Y, Deshpande A, Sahu S, Chao T, Sukaviriya P, Naphade M (2013) The Dubuque electricity portal: evaluation of a city-scale residential electricity consumption feedback system. In: Proceedings of CHI 2013. ACM, New York, pp 1203–1212. doi:10.1145/2470654.2466155
  38. 38.
    Consolvo S, Everitt K, Smith I, Landay JA (2006) Design requirements for technologies that encourage physical activity. In: Proceedings of CHI 2006. ACM, New York, pp 457–466. doi:10.1145/1124772.1124840
  39. 39.
    Eiriksdottir E, Kestranek D, Catrambone R, Mynatt ED, Miller AD, Xu Y, Poole ES (2012) This is not a one-horse race: understanding player types in multiplayer pervasive health games for youth. In: Proceedings of CSCW 2012. ACM, New York, pp 843–852. doi:10.1145/2145204.2145330
  40. 40.
    Lin J, Mamykina L, Lindtner S, Delajoux G, Strub H (2006) Fish’n’Steps: encouraging physical activity with an interactive computer game. In: Proceedings of UbiComp 2006. Springer, Berlin, pp 261–278. doi:10.1007/11853565_16
  41. 41.
    Khaled R, Barr P, Noble J, Biddle R (2006) Investigating social software as persuasive technology. In: Proceedings of PERSUASIVE 2006. Springer, Berlin, pp 104–107. doi:10.1007/11755494_15
  42. 42.
    Maitland J, Chalmers M (2011) Designing for peer involvement in weight management. In: Proceedings of CHI 2011. ACM, New York, pp 315–324. doi:10.1145/1978942.1978988
  43. 43.
    Wills TA (1991) Social support and interpersonal relationships. Rev Personal Soc Psychol 12:265–289Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Maloney-Krichmar D, Preece J (2005) A multilevel analysis of sociability, usability, and community dynamics in an online health community. ACM Trans Comput Human Interact (TOCHI) 12(2):201–232. doi:10.1145/1067860.1067864 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Burke M, Joyce E, Kim T, Anand V, Kraut R (2007) Introductions and requests: rhetorical strategies that elicit response in online communities. In: Steinfield C, Pentland BT, Ackerman M, Contractor N (eds) Proceedings of C&T 2007. Springer, London, pp 21–39. doi:10.1007/978-1-84628-905-7_2
  46. 46.
    Wang Y-C, Kraut R, Levine JM (2012) To stay or leave? The relationship of emotional and informational support to commitment in online health support groups. In: Proceedings of CSCW 2012. ACM, New York, pp 833–842. doi:10.1145/2145204.2145329
  47. 47.
    Facebook (2014) Key facts. http://newsroom.fb.com/Key-Facts. Accessed 1 Mar 2014
  48. 48.
    Murnane EL, Counts S (2014) Unraveling abstinence and relapse: smoking cessation reflected in social media. In: Proceedings of CHI 2014. ACM, New York, pp 1345–1354. doi:10.1145/2556288.2557145
  49. 49.
    Newman MW, Lauterbach D, Munson SA, Resnick P, Morris ME (2011) It’s not that I don’t have problems, I’m just not putting them on Facebook: challenges and opportunities in using online social networks for health. In: Proceedings of CSCW 2011. ACM, New York, pp 341–350. doi:10.1145/1958824.1958876
  50. 50.
    Olsen E, Kraft P (2009) ePsychology: A pilot study on how to enhance social support and adherence in digital interventions by characteristics from social networking sites. In: Proceedings of PERSUASIVE 2009. ACM, Claremont, California, pp 1–6. doi:10.1145/1541948.1541991
  51. 51.
    Munson S, Lauterbach D, Newman M, Resnick P (2010) Happier together: integrating a wellness application into a social network site. In: Proceedings of PERSUASIVE 2010. Lecture notes in computer science. Springer, Berlin, pp 27–39. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-13226-1_5
  52. 52.
    Ploderer B, Smith W, Howard S, Pearce J, Borland R (2012) Introducing the ambivalent socialiser. In: Proceedings of CHI 2012. ACM, New York, pp 1511–1514. doi:10.1145/2207676.2208613
  53. 53.
    Purpura S, Schwanda V, Williams K, Stubler W, Sengers P (2011) Fit4life: The design of a persuasive technology promoting healthy behavior and ideal weight. In: Proceedings of CHI 2011. ACM, New York, pp 423–432. doi:10.1145/1978942.1979003
  54. 54.
    Cobb NK, Graham AL, Abrams DB (2010) Social network structure of a large online community for smoking cessation. Am J Public Health 100(7):1282–1289. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2009.165449 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kairam S, Brzozowski M, Huffaker D, Chi EH (2012) Talking in circles: Selective sharing in Google+. In: Proceedings of CHI 2012. ACM Press, New York, pp 1065–1074Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Khaled R, Barr P, Biddle R, Fischer R, Noble J (2009) Game design strategies for collectivist persuasion. In: Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2009. ACM, New York, pp 31–38. doi:10.1145/1581073.1581078
  57. 57.
    Rogers Y, Hazlewood WR, Marshall P, Dalton N, Hertrich S (2010) Ambient influence: can twinkly lights lure and abstract representations trigger behavioral change? In: Proceedings of UbiComp 2010. ACM, New York, pp 261–270. doi:10.1145/1864349.1864372
  58. 58.
    The Fun Theory. http://www.thefuntheory.com/. Accessed 14 January 2014
  59. 59.
    Valkanova N, Jorda S, Tomitsch M, Moere AV (2013) Reveal-it!: the impact of a social visualization projection on public awareness and discourse. In: Proceedings of CHI 2013. ACM, New York, pp 3461–3470. doi:10.1145/2470654.2466476
  60. 60.
    Bird J, Rogers Y (2010) The pulse of tidy street: measuring and publicly displaying domestic electricity consumption. In: workshop on energy awareness and conservation through pervasive applications (Pervasive 2010)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hallnäs L, Redström J (2001) Slow technology—designing for reflection. Pers Ubiquitous Comput 5(3):201–212. doi:10.1007/PL00000019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Siegel MA, Beck J (2014) Slow change interaction design. Interactions 21(1):28–35. doi:10.1145/2542649 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Long K, Vines J (2013) Mind pool: encouraging self-reflection through ambiguous bio-feedback. In: extended abstracts of CHI 2013. ACM, New York, pp 2975–2978. doi:10.1145/2468356.2479588
  64. 64.
    Fleck R, Fitzpatrick G (2010) Reflecting on reflection: framing a design landscape. In: Proceedings of OZCHI 2010. ACM, New York, pp 216–223. doi:10.1145/1952222.1952269
  65. 65.
    Schön DA (1983) The reflective practitioner: how professionals think in action. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Dey AK (2001) Understanding and using context. Pers Ubiquitous Comput 5(1):4–7. doi:10.1007/s007790170019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Schmidt A, Häkkilä J, Atterer R, Rukzio E, Holleis P (2006) Utilizing mobile phones as ambient information displays. In: extended abstracts of CHI 2006. ACM, New York, pp 1295–1300. doi:10.1145/1125451.1125692
  68. 68.
    Fitbit. http://www.fitbit.com/. Accessed 7 March 2014
  69. 69.
    Nike+ Fuelband SE. http://www.nike.com/us/en_us/c/nikeplus-fuelband. Accessed 11 Mar 2014
  70. 70.
    Quantified Self Labs (2014) Quantified Self: self knowledge through numbers. http://quantifiedself.com/. Accessed 10 Mar 2014
  71. 71.
    Fox S, Duggan M (2013) Tracking for health pew internet and american life project, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Rooksby J, Rost M, Morrison A, Chalmers MC (2014) Personal tracking as lived informatics. Proc CHI 2014:1163–1172. doi:10.1145/2556288.2557039 Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Consolvo S, McDonald DW, Toscos T, Chen MY, Froehlich J, Harrison B, Klasnja P, LaMarca A, LeGrand L, Libby R, Smith I, Landay JA (2008) Activity sensing in the wild: a field trial of ubifit garden. In: Proceedings of CHI 2008. ACM, New York, pp 1797–1806. doi:10.1145/1357054.1357335
  74. 74.
    Smith BK, Frost J, Albayrak M, Sudhakar R (2007) Integrating glucometers and digital photography as experience capture tools to enhance patient understanding and communication of diabetes self-management practices. Pers Ubiquitous Comput 11(4):273–286. doi:10.1007/s00779-006-0087-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    mySugr Companion. http://mysugr.com/companion/. Accessed 7 Mar 2014
  76. 76.
    Dourish P, Mazmanian M (2011) Media as material: information representations as material foundations for organizational practice. In: Proceedings of the third international symposium on process organization studies. Corfu, GreeceGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Fan C, Forlizzi J, Dey AK (2012) A spark of activity: exploring informative art as visualization for physical activity. In: Proceedings of UbiComp 2012. ACM, New York, pp 81–84. doi:10.1145/2370216.2370229
  78. 78.
    Wiafe I, Nakata K, Gulliver S (2014) Categorizing users in behavior change support systems based on cognitive dissonance. Pers Ubiquitous Comput (this issue). doi:10.1007/s00779-014-0782-3
  79. 79.
    Festinger L (1957) A theory of cognitive dissonance. Stanford University Press, StanfordGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Oinas-Kukkonen H, Harjumaa M (2009) Persuasive systems design: key issues, process model, and system features. Commun Assoc Inform Syst 24(1):485–500Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Oduor M, Alahäivälä T, Oinas-Kukkonen H (2014) Persuasive software design patterns for social influence. Pers Ubiquitous Comput (this issue). doi:10.1007/s00779-014-0778-z
  82. 82.
    Zuckerman O, Gal-Oz A (2014) Deconstructing gamification: evaluating the effectiveness of continuous measurement, virtual rewards and social comparison for promoting physical activity. Pers Ubiquitous Comput (this issue). doi:10.1007/s00779-014-0783-2
  83. 83.
    Reitberger W, Spreicer W, Fitzpatrick G (2014) Situated and mobile displays for reflection on shopping and nutritional choices. Pers Ubiquitous Comput (this issue). doi:10.1007/s00779-014-0781-4
  84. 84.
    Parker AG (2014) Reflection-through-performance: personal implications of documenting health behaviors for the collective. Pers Ubiquitous Comput (this issue). doi:10.1007/s00779-014-0780-5

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernd Ploderer
    • 1
  • Wolfgang Reitberger
    • 2
  • Harri Oinas-Kukkonen
    • 3
  • Julia van Gemert-Pijnen
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Computing and Information SystemsThe University of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Institute for Design and Assessment of TechnologyVienna University of TechnologyViennaAustria
  3. 3.Department of Information Processing ScienceUniversity of OuluOuluFinland
  4. 4.Department of Psychology, Health and TechnologyUniversity of TwenteEnschedeThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations