Personal and Ubiquitous Computing

, Volume 17, Issue 5, pp 1025–1034 | Cite as

Towards augmenting federated wireless sensor networks in forestry applications

  • Fadi M. Al-Turjman
  • Hossam Hassanein
  • Sharief Oteafy
  • Waleed Alsalih
Original Article


Environmental Monitoring (EM) has witnessed significant improvements in recent years due to the great utility of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Nevertheless, due to harsh operational conditions in such applications, WSNs often suffer large-scale damage in which nodes fail concurrently and the network gets partitioned into disjoint sectors. Thus, reestablishing connectivity between the sectors, via their remaining functional nodes, is of utmost importance in EM, especially in forestry. In this regard, considerable work has been proposed in the literature tackling this problem by deploying Relay Nodes (RNs) aimed at reestablishing connectivity. Although finding the minimum relay count and positions is NP-Hard, efficient heuristic approaches have been anticipated. However, the majority of these approaches ignore the surrounding environment characteristics and the infinite 3-dimensional (3-D) search space that significantly degrades network performance in practice. Therefore, we propose a 3-D grid-based deployment for RNs in which the relays are efficiently placed on grid vertices. We present a novel approach, named fixing augmented network damage intelligently, based on a minimum spanning tree construction to re-connect the disjointed WSN sectors. The performance of the proposed approach is validated and assessed through extensive simulations, and comparisons with two main stream approaches are presented. Our protocol outperforms the related work in terms of the average relay node count and distribution, the scalability of the federated WSNs in large-scale applications, and the robustness of the topologies formed.


Wireless sensor network Sparse connectivity Relay placement Grid deployment Environmental applications 



Wireless sensor network


Relay nodes


Environmental monitoring


Fixing augmented network damage intelligently


Micro-electromechanical systems


Minimum spanning tree


Base station


Grid unit potential set


Maximal GUPS


Time to partition


Node density


Probability of failure


Steiner with minimum steiner points


Minimum spanning tree approach


Connected component



This research is funded by a grant from the Ontario Ministry of Economic Development and Innovation under the Ontario Research Fund-Research Excellence (ORF-RE) program. This research is also sponsored by the National Plan for Science and Technology at King Saud University, Project number: 11-INF1500-02.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fadi M. Al-Turjman
    • 1
  • Hossam Hassanein
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sharief Oteafy
    • 1
  • Waleed Alsalih
    • 2
  1. 1.School of ComputingQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada
  2. 2.Department of Computer ScienceKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

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