Personal and Ubiquitous Computing

, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 107–126 | Cite as

Designing motivation using persuasive ambient mirrors

  • Tatsuo NakajimaEmail author
  • Vili Lehdonvirta
Original Article


In this article, we describe four case studies of ubiquitous persuasive technologies that support behavior change through personalized feedback reflecting a user’s current behavior or attitude. The first case study is Persuasive Art, reflecting the current status of a user’s physical exercise in artistic images. The second system, Virtual Aquarium, reflects a user’s toothbrushing behavior in a Virtual Aquarium. The third system, Mona Lisa Bookshelf, reflects the situation of a shared bookshelf on a Mona Lisa painting. The last case study is EcoIsland, reflecting cooperative efforts toward reducing CO2 emissions as a set of virtual islands shared by a neighborhood. Drawing from the experience of designing and evaluating these systems, we present guidelines for the design of persuasive ambient mirrors: systems that use visual feedback to effect changes in users’ everyday living patterns. In particular, we feature findings in choosing incentive systems, designing emotionally engaging feedback, timing feedback, and persuasive interaction design. Implications for current design efforts as well as for future research directions are discussed.


Persuasive technology Interaction design Gamification 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringWaseda UniversityTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Helsinki Institute for Information TechnologyAalto UniversityHelsinkiFinland

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