Personal and Ubiquitous Computing

, Volume 16, Issue 8, pp 1025–1038 | Cite as

Landmarke: an ad hoc deployable ubicomp infrastructure to support indoor navigation of firefighters

  • Leonardo RamirezEmail author
  • Tobias Dyrks
  • Jan Gerwinski
  • Matthias Betz
  • Markus Scholz
  • Volker Wulf
Original Article


Indoor navigation plays a central role for the safety of firefighters. The circumstances in which a firefighting intervention occurs represent a rather complex challenge for the design of supporting technology. In this paper, we present the results of our work designing an ad hoc ubicomp infrastructure to support navigation of firefighters working in structure fires inside the zone of danger. We take a wider approach, complementing the technical questions with the development of effective navigation practices based on technology available today. We provide an overview of the complete design process, from the theoretical and empirical underpinnings to the construction and evaluation of three iterations of the platform. We report the results of our evaluation and the implications and tensions uncovered in this process, and we discuss the challenges and implications of it for the design of ubicomp for firefighters.


Indoor navigation Navigation Orientation Mobile ad hoc network Firefighting Wearable computing Sensor networks Ad hoc deployment Ubiquitous computing Human–computer interaction 



We would like to thank the Institute of Firefighters of Nord-Rhine Westphalia and the Fire Brigade of the City of Cologne for their invaluable support and great engagement in this project. This work is partially supported by the German Ministry of Research and Education as part of the Landmarke project (contract no. 13N9916).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leonardo Ramirez
    • 1
    • 2
  • Tobias Dyrks
    • 2
  • Jan Gerwinski
    • 3
  • Matthias Betz
    • 1
  • Markus Scholz
    • 4
  • Volker Wulf
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Information Technology FITSankt AugustinGermany
  2. 2.Department of Information Systems and New MediaUniversity of SiegenSiegenGermany
  3. 3.Department of Germanistics and Applied LinguisticsUniversity of SiegenSiegenGermany
  4. 4.TecO, Karlsruhe Institute of TechnologyKarlsruheGermany

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