A wireless sensor networks MAC protocol for real-time applications
- 194 Downloads
Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are designed for data gathering and processing, with particular requirements: low hardware complexity, low energy consumption, special traffic pattern support, scalability, and in some cases, real-time operation. In this paper we present the virtual TDMA for sensors (VTS) MAC protocol, which intends to support the previous features, focusing particularly on real-time operation. VTS adaptively creates a TDMA arrangement with a number of timeslots equal to the actual number of nodes in range. Thus, VTS achieves an optimal throughput performance compared to TDMA protocols with fixed size of frame. The frame is set up and maintained by a distributed procedure, which allows sensors to asynchronously join and leave the frame. In addition, duty cycle is increased or decreased in order to keep latency constant below a given deadline. Therefore, a major advantage of VTS is that it guarantees a bounded latency, which allows soft real-time applications.
KeywordsWireless sensor networks MAC protocols Real-time applications
The Economy, Industry and Innovation Council have cofunded this work, with the SOLIDMOVIL project (2I04SU044), supported by Fundacion Seneca, from the Region of Murcia with the ARENA Project (00546/PI/04), with the ARPaq project (TEC2004-05622-C04-02/TCM) by the Spanish Research Council and the CSI-RHET project (TEC2005-08068-C04-01/TCM).
- 1.Akyildiz IF, Kasimoglu IH (1995) Wireless sensor and actor networks: research challenges. Elseveier Ad Hoc Netw 2(4):351–367Google Scholar
- 3.Stemm M, Katz RH (1997) Measuring and reducing energy consumption of network interfaces in hand-held devices. IEICE Trans Commun E80-B:1125–1131Google Scholar
- 4.Singh S, Raghavendra C (1998) Power efficient MAC protocol for multihop radio networks IEEE Interational symposium on personal, indoor and mobile radio communications, vol 1, pp 153–157Google Scholar
- 5.van Dam T, Langendoen K (2003) An adaptive energy-efficient MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks. SenSys 03-ACM conference on embedded networked sensor systems, pp 171–180Google Scholar
- 7.van Hoesel L, Nieberg T, Kip H, Havinga P (2004) Advantages of a TDMA based, energy-efficient, self-organizing MAC protocol for WSNs. IEEE VTCGoogle Scholar
- 8.van Hoesel L, Havinga P (2004) A lightweight medium access protocol (LMAC) for wireless sensor networks. INNS 04-International workshop on networked sensing systemsGoogle Scholar
- 9.Langendoen K, Halkes G (2005) Energy-efficient medium access control. In: Zurawski R (ed) Embedded systems handbook, CRC, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar