Advertisement

Personal and Ubiquitous Computing

, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 143–153 | Cite as

A resource and context model for mobile middleware

  • Sten L. AmundsenEmail author
  • Frank Eliassen
Original Article

Abstract

Mobile computing systems should be self-managed to simplify operation and maintenance plus meet user’s expectation with respect to Quality of Service (QoS). When architecting self-managed mobile computing systems, one must take a holistic view on both QoS management and the entities in the mobile environment. This paper presents a novel model that includes both resources and context elements. To illustrate the usefulness of the model, it is applied to a video streaming application by: (1) modelling context elements and resources in the environment, (2) specifying context dependencies and QoS characteristics of the application, and (3) designing weakly integrated resource and context managers. We describe a middleware that uses the developed managers when evaluating context dependencies and predict offered QoS of alternative implementations of the application. In order to select the one that can operate in the current environment and that best satisfies given user preferences.

Keywords

Context model Resource model Mobile middleware QoS management Context management QoS specifications 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The video streaming scenario that is used to define (realistic) requirements to a dynamic mobile middleware platform has been developed in collaboration with Associate Professors Pål Halvorsen, and Carsten Griwodz from the Informatics department at the University of Oslo, and Post Doc. Ketil Lund from Simula Research Laboratory.

References

  1. 1.
    Emmerich W (2002) Distributed component technologies and their software engineering implications. In: Proceedings of the 24th international conference on software engineering. ACM Press, New York, pp 537–546Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Davis N, Friday A, Blair GS, Cheverst K (1996) Distributed systems support for adaptive mobile applications. ACM-Baltzer Mobile Net Appl 1(4):399–408Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Noble BD, Satynarayanan M, Narayanan D, Tilton JE, Walker KR (1997) Agile application-aware adaptation for mobility. In: Proceedings of the 16th ACM symposium on operating systems principles. ACM Press, New York, pp 276–287Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brewer EA, Katz RH, Chawathe Y, Gribble SD, Hode T, Nguyen G, Stemm M, Henderson T, Amir E, Balakrishnan H, Fox A, Padmanabhan VN, Seshan S (1998) A network architecture for heterogeneous mobile computing. IEEE Pers Commun 5(5):8–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Grace P, Blair GS, Samuel S (2005) A reflective framework for discovery and interaction in heterogeneous mobile environments. ACM SIGMOBILE Mobile Comput Commun Rev 9(1):2–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chan ATS, Chuang S (2003) MobiPADS: a reflective middleware for context-aware mobile computing. IEEE Trans Softw Eng 29(12):1072–1085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    The EU project—Madam (2005) Theory of adaptation—specification of the MADAM core architecture and middleware services, sixth framework programme, D2.1Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kephart JO, Chess DE (2003) The vision of autonomic computing. IEEE Comput 36:41–52Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kephart JO (2005) Research challenges of autonomic computing. In: Proceedings of the 27th international conference on software engineering. ACM Press, New York, pp 15–22Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Parashar M, Hariri S (2005) Autonomic computing: an overview. International workshop unconventional programming paradigms, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 3566. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 247–259Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Huang G, Liu T, Mei H, Zheng Z, Liu Z, Fan G (2004) Towards autonomic computing middleware via reflection. In: Proceedings of the 28th international computer software and applications conference. IEEE Computer Science, USA, pp 135–140Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Solberg A, Amundsen S, Aagedal J, Eliassen F (2004) A Framework for QoS-aware service composition. In: Proceedings of 2nd ACM international conference on service oriented computingGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Amundsen S, Lund K, Griwodz C, Halvorsen P (2005) QoS-aware mobile middleware for video streaming. In: Proceedings of the 31st EUROMICRO conference on software engineering and advanced applications. IEEE Computer Society, USA, pp 54–61Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lu S, Bharghavan V (1996) Adaptive resource management algorithms for indoor mobile computing environments. In: Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM ‘96 conference on applications, technologies, architectures, and protocols for computer communication. ACM Press, New York, pp 231–242Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Capra L (2003) CARISMA: context-aware reflective middleware system for mobile applications. PhD Thesis, University College London, University of LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lundesgaard S, Eliassen F (2006) Combined resource and context model for QoS-Aware mobile middleware. In: Proceedings of the 19th international conference on architecture of computing systems, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 3894. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 84–98Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Duran-Limon HA, Blair GS (2003) The importance of resource management in engineering distributed objects. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 1999/2001. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 44–60Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Object Management Group (2005) UML profile for schedulability, performance, and time specification, v1.1, OMG formal/05-01-02Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Watt S, Myrhaug HI, Whitehead N, Yakici M, Bierig R, Nuti SK, Cumming H (2004) An ambient, personalised, and context-sensitive information system for mobile users. In: Proceedings of the 2nd European Union symposium on ambient intelligence. ACM Press, New York, pp 19–24Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hong JI, Landay JA (2004) An architecture for privacy-sensitive ubiquitous computing. In: Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on mobile systems, applications, and services. ACM Press, New York, pp 177–189Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Christopoulou E, Goumopolos C, Kameas A (2005) An ontology-based context management and reasoning process for UbiComp applications. In: Proceedings of the joint conference on Smart objects and ambient intelligence. ACM Press, New York, pp 265–270Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lundesgaard S, Lund K, Eliassen F (2006) Utilising alternative application configurations in context and QoS-aware mobile middleware. In: Proceedings of distributed applications and interoperable systems. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 4025. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 228–241Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Corradi A, Montanari R, Tibaldi D (2004) Context-based access control for ubiquitous service provisioning. In: Proceedings of the 28th international computer software and applications conference. IEEE Conference Proceedings, pp 444–451Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chen G, Kotz D (2000) A survey of context-aware mobile computing research. Technical report TR2000-381, Darthmouth Computer ScienceGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Object Management Group (2004) UML profile for modelling Quality of Service and Fault tolerant characteristics and mechanisms. OMG adapted specificationGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    da Rocha RCA, Endler M (2006) Context management in heterogeneous, evolving ubiquitous environments. IEEE Distributed Syst 7(4), Online Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Simula Research LaboratoryNetwork and Distributed SystemsLysakerNorway

Personalised recommendations