Personal and Ubiquitous Computing

, Volume 10, Issue 4, pp 255–268 | Cite as

Reality mining: sensing complex social systems

  • Nathan EagleEmail author
  • Alex (Sandy) Pentland
Original Article


We introduce a system for sensing complex social systems with data collected from 100 mobile phones over the course of 9 months. We demonstrate the ability to use standard Bluetooth-enabled mobile telephones to measure information access and use in different contexts, recognize social patterns in daily user activity, infer relationships, identify socially significant locations, and model organizational rhythms.


Mobile phones Bluetooth Complex social systems Wearable computing User modeling 



The authors would like to express their gratitude to Wen Dong, Stephen Guerin, Tony Pryor, and Aaron Clauset. We would also like to thank Hari Pennanen and Nokia for their support. Finally, Mika Raento deserves particular recognition as the architect of Context and whose efforts were instrumental to this research.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.MIT Media LaboratoryCambridgeUSA

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