Personal and Ubiquitous Computing

, Volume 7, Issue 5, pp 249–262 | Cite as

The evolution of perspective view in WalkMap

  • Riku Suomela
  • Kimmo Roimela
  • Juha Lehikoinen
Original Article


A wearable computer is a potential platform for map applications: it is mobile in nature, and is often equipped with a head-worn display capable of displaying maps of the surrounding area in graphical form. In this paper, we present a map application, called WalkMap, developed for wearable computers. We concentrate on the visual presentation of the map, and propose a visualisation method that is based on the perspective distortion of a regular two-dimensional bird's-eye view map. We also describe the results of a field study, and compare the distorted view to a regular two-dimensional view. The results show that while a perspective visualisation is good for some navigational tasks, for some other tasks a regular map is preferred. We then continue by developing the visualisation further, and present a fully adjustable three-dimensional version of the map application, called WalkMap3D. WalkMap3D can display the map area in three dimensions, but is also capable of displaying both traditional two-dimensional and perspective map views.


Map Navigation Perspective Three-dimensional Wearable computing User study 



OpenGL Graphics System Utility Library


Head Worn Display


Level of Detail


Virtual Reality Modelling Language


You Are Here



The authors wish to thank Tero Hakala, Mika Röykkee, Aino Ahtinen, Tomi Aarnio, Ilkka Salminen and Antti Aaltonen from the Nokia Research Center.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nokia Research CenterTampereFinland

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