The VLDB Journal

, Volume 20, Issue 4, pp 541–566 | Cite as

Privacy in geo-social networks: proximity notification with untrusted service providers and curious buddies

  • Sergio Mascetti
  • Dario Freni
  • Claudio Bettini
  • X. Sean Wang
  • Sushil Jajodia
Regular Paper

Abstract

A major feature of the emerging geo-social networks is the ability to notify a user when any of his friends (also called buddies) happens to be geographically in proximity. This proximity service is usually offered by the network itself or by a third party service provider (SP) using location data acquired from the users. This paper provides a rigorous theoretical and experimental analysis of the existing solutions for the location privacy problem in proximity services. This is a serious problem for users who do not trust the SP to handle their location data and would only like to release their location information in a generalized form to participating buddies. The paper presents two new protocols providing complete privacy with respect to the SP and controllable privacy with respect to the buddies. The analytical and experimental analysis of the protocols takes into account privacy, service precision, and computation and communication costs, showing the superiority of the new protocols compared to those appeared in the literature to date. The proposed protocols have also been tested in a full system implementation of the proximity service.

Keywords

Proximity services Geo-social networks Location-based services Location privacy 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Amir A., Efrat A., Myllymaki J., Palaniappan L., Wampler K.: Buddy tracking—efficient proximity detection among mobile friends. Pervasive Mob Comput 3(5), 489–511 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bettini C., Jajodia S., Samarati P., Wang X.S.: Privacy in Location-Based Applications, vol. 5599 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bettini C., Wang X.S., Jajodia S.: Time Granularities in Databases, Data Mining, and Temporal Reasoning. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)MATHGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bishop M.: Computer Security: Art and Science, Chap. 32. Addison-Wesley, Reading (2003)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chon H. D., Agrawal D., El Abbadi A.: Range and knn query processing for moving objects in grid model. Mob Netw Appl 8(4), 401–412 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Freni, D., Mascetti, S., Bettini, C.: Hide&Crypt: protecting privacy in proximity-based services. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Spatial and Temporal Databases, vol. 5644 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 441–444. Springer (2009)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gedik B., Liu L.: Protecting location privacy with personalized k-anonymity: architecture and algorithms. IEEE Trans. Mob. Comput. 7(1), 1–18 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ghinita, G., Damiani, M.L., Silvestri, C., Bertino, E.: Preventing velocity-based linkage attacks in location-aware applications. In: Proceedings of ACM International Symposium on Advances in Geographic Information Systems, pp. 246–255. ACM Press (2009)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ghinita, G., Kalnis, P., Khoshgozaran, A., Shahabi, C., Tan, K.-L.: Private queries in location based services: anonymizers are not necessary. In: Proceedings of SIGMOD, pp. 121–132. ACM Press (2008)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gruteser, M., Grunwald, D.: Anonymous usage of location-based services through spatial and temporal cloaking. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications and Services, pp. 31–42. The USENIX Association (2003)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jensen C.S., Lu H., Yiu M.L.: Location privacy techniques in client–server architectures. In: Bettini, C., Jajodia, S., Samarati, P., Wang, X.S. (eds) Privacy in Location-Based Applications, vol. 5599 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, Heidelberg (2009)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kalnis P., Ghinita G., Mouratidis K., Papadias D.: Preventing location-based identity inference in anonymous spatial queries. IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. 19(12), 1719–1733 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Khoshgozaran, A., Shahabi, C.: Private buddy search: enabling private spatial queries in social networks. In: Symposium on Social Intelligence and Networking (2009)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Khoshgozaran, A., Shahabi, C., Shirani-Mehr, H.: Location privacy: going beyond k-anonymity, cloaking and anonymizers. Knowl. Inf. Syst. (2010, to appear)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kido, H., Yanagisawa, Y., Satoh, T.: An anonymous communication technique using dummies for location-based services. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Pervasive Services, pp. 88–97. IEEE Computer Society (2005)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mascetti, S., Bettini, C., Freni, D.: Longitude: centralized privacy-preserving computation of users’ proximity. In: Proceedings of 6th VLDB Workshop on Secure Data Management, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer (2009)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mascetti S., Bettini C., Freni D., Wang X.S.: Spatial generalization algorithms for LBS privacy preservation. J. Locat. Based Serv. 1(3), 179–207 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mascetti, S., Bettini, C., Freni, D., Wang, X.S., Jajodia, S.: Privacy-aware proximity based services. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Mobile Data Management, pp. 31–40. IEEE Computer Society (2009)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mokbel, M.F., Chow, C.-Y., Aref, W.G.: The new casper: query processing for location services without compromising privacy. In: Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Very Large Data Bases, pp. 763–774. VLDB Endowment (2006)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Papadopoulos, S., Bakiras, S., Papadias, D.: Nearest neighbor search with strong location privacy. In: Proceedings of the 36th International Conference on Very Large Data Bases (VLDB 2010) (2010)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ruppel, P., Treu, G., Küpper, A., Linnhoff-Popien, C.: Anonymous user tracking for location-based community services. In: Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Location- and Context-Awareness, vol. LNCS 3987, pp. 116–133. Springer (2006)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Peter, S.-A.: Extensible messaging and presence protocol (XMPP): core. RFC 3920, IETF (2004).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Samarati P.: Protecting respondents’ identities in microdata release. IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. 13(6), 1010–1027 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Šaltenis S., Jensen C.S., Leutenegger S.T., Lopez M.A.: Indexing the positions of continuously moving objects. SIGMOD Rec. 29(2), 331–342 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Šikšnys, L., Thomsen, J.R., Šaltenis, S., Yiu, M.L.: Private and flexible proximity detection in mobile social networks. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Mobile Data Management, pp. 75–84 (2010)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Šikšnys, L., Thomsen, J.R., Šaltenis, S., Yiu, M.L., Andersen, O.: A location privacy aware friend locator. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Spatial and Temporal Databases, vol. 5644 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 405–410. Springer (2009)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wang, S., Wang, X.S.: Anontwist: Nearest neighbor querying with both location privacy and k-anonymity for mobile users. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Privacy-Aware Location-Based Mobile Services, pp. 443–448. IEEE Computer Society (2009)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yiu, M.L., Jensen, C.S., Huang, X., Lu, H.: SpaceTwist: managing the trade-offs among location privacy, query performance, and query accuracy in mobile services. In: Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Data Engineering, pp. 366–375. IEEE Computer Society (2008)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yiu, M.L., Hou,L.U. Šaltenis, S., Tzoumas, K.: Efficient proximity detection among mobile users via self-tuning policies. In: Proceedings of the 36th International Conference on Very Large Data Bases (2010)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zhong, G., Goldberg, I., Hengartner, U., Louis, L., Pierre: Three protocols for location privacy. In: Privacy Enhancing Technologies, vol. LNCS 4776, pp. 62–76. Springer (2007)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag (outside the USA) 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sergio Mascetti
    • 1
  • Dario Freni
    • 1
  • Claudio Bettini
    • 1
  • X. Sean Wang
    • 2
  • Sushil Jajodia
    • 3
  1. 1.DICo, Università degli Studi di MilanoMilanItaly
  2. 2.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of VermontBurlingtonUSA
  3. 3.CSIS, George Mason UniversityFairfax CountyUSA

Personalised recommendations