Proteomic analysis of calcium-enriched sol–gel biomaterials
Calcium is an element widely used in the development of biomaterials for bone tissue engineering as it plays important roles in bone metabolism and blood coagulation. The Ca ions can condition the microenvironment at the tissue–material interface, affecting the protein deposition process and cell responses. The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in the patterns of protein adsorption on the silica hybrid biomaterials supplemented with different amounts of CaCl2, which can function as release vehicles. This characterization was carried out by incubating the Ca-biomaterials with human serum. LC–MS/MS analysis was used to characterize the adsorbed protein layers and compile a list of proteins whose affinity for the surfaces might depend on the CaCl2 content. The attachment of pro- and anti-clotting proteins, such as THRB, ANT3, and PROC, increased significantly on the Ca-materials. Similarly, VTNC and APOE, proteins directly involved on osteogenic processes, attached preferentially to these surfaces. To assess correlations with the proteomic data, these formulations were tested in vitro regarding their osteogenic and inflammatory potential, employing MC3T3-E1 and RAW 264.7 cell lines, respectively. The results confirmed a Ca dose-dependent osteogenic and inflammatory behavior of the materials employed, in accordance with the protein attachment patterns.
KeywordsProthrombin Apolipoprotein E Blood clotting Vitronectin Bone regeneration
This work was supported by MINECO [MAT2017-86043-R]; Universitat Jaume I [Grant numbers Predoc/2014/25, UJI-B2017-37]; Basque Government [Grant numbers IT611-13, Predoc/2016/1/0141]; University of the Basque Country [Grant number UFI11/56]. CIC bioGUNE is supported by Basque Department of Industry, Tourism and Trade (Etortek and Elkartek programs), the Innovation Technology Department of the Bizkaia County; The ProteoRed-ISCIII (Grant PRB3 IPT17/0019); CIBERehd Network, and Severo Ochoa Grant (SEV-2016-0644). Authors would like to thank Antonio Coso and Jaime Franco (GMI-Ilerimplant) for their inestimable contribution to this study, and Raquel Oliver, Jose Ortega (UJI) and Iraide Escobes (CIC bioGUNE) for their valuable technical assistance.
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