Fabrication and growth mechanism of ZnO nanostructures and their cytotoxic effect on human brain tumor U87, cervical cancer HeLa, and normal HEK cells
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ZnO nanostructures of diverse shape were grown via a solution process with different precursors and conditions. Morphological investigation of the nanostructures was carried out using field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission microscopy observations and revealed that the nanostructures exhibit a wurtzite phase with an ideal lattice fringe distance of approximately 0.52 nm. The powder crystallinity was examined via X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. Screening results from anticancer studies of the effects on human brain tumor U87, cervical cancer HeLa, and normal HEK cells of ZnO nanostructures of diverse shape were obtained and indicate promising activity that varies with changes in the structure and the size of the particles. Treatment-induced cell death [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and survival assay], growth inhibition, cytogenetic damage (formation of micronuclei), and apoptosis were studied as parameters for the cellular response. Treatment with nanostructures enhanced growth inhibition and cell death in a concentration-dependent manner in both U87 and HeLa cell lines. At higher concentrations (above 15.6 μg/ml) the cytotoxic effects of the nanoparticles were highly synergistic and mainly mediated through apoptosis, implying the possible interactions of lesions caused by the agents. The enhanced cell death due to nanoparticles was accompanied by a significant increase (2–3 fold at 31.25 μg/ml) in the formation of micronuclei in U87 cells. The increase in the formation of micronuclei observed after treatment indicates that these structures may interfere with the rejoining of DNA strand breaks. Among all the nanostructures, nanoparticles and sheets exhibited potent activity against both HeLa and U87 cells. However, despite potent in vitro activity, all nanostructures exhibited diminished cytotoxicity against normal human HEK cells at all effective concentrations.
KeywordsMicronuclei Zinc oxide nanostructures Human brain tumor Cervical cancer
Rizwan Wahab would like to acknowledge a grant from the Post Doc Program, Chonbuk National University. We would also like to thank Mr. Kang Jong-Gyun, Center for University-wide Research Facilities, Chonbuk National University, for his cooperation in TEM observations and the KBSI (Korea Basic Science Institute), Jeonju branch, for letting us use its FESEM facility.
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