Influence of sarcopenia on bone health parameters in a group of eumenorrheic obese premenopausal women
The aim of this study was to compare bone mineral density (BMD) and geometric indices of hip bone strength in a group of obese sarcopenic premenopausal women (n = 27) and a group of obese premenopausal women with normal appendicular lean mass (ALM)/body mass index ratio (BMI) (n = 26).
Materials and methods
The ALM/BMI criterion of The Foundation for the National Institute of Health was used; women with an ALM/BMI ratio < 0.512 m2 were considered obese sarcopenic. Body composition and bone variables were measured by DXA. DXA measurements were completed for the whole body (WB), lumbar spine (L1–L4), total hip (TH) and femoral neck (FN). Hip geometry parameters including cross-sectional area (CSA), cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI), section modulus (Z), strength index (SI) and buckling ratio (BR) were derived by DXA.
Age, weight and BMI were not significantly different between the two groups. Height, lean mass, skeletal muscle mass index, ALM and the ratio ALM/BMI were significantly higher in obese women with normal ALM/BMI ratio compared to obese sarcopenic women. Fat mass percentage was significantly higher in obese sarcopenic women compared to obese women with normal ALM/BMI ratio. WB BMC, TH BMD, FN BMD, CSA, CSMI and Z were significantly higher in obese women with normal ALM/BMI ratio compared to obese sarcopenic women. In the whole population (n = 53), ALM and the ratio ALM/BMI were positively correlated to WB BMC, CSA, CSMI and Z.
The present study suggests that sarcopenia negatively influences bone mineral density and hip geometry parameters before menopause in eumenorrheic obese women.
KeywordsFat mass excess Prevention of osteoporosis Hip bone strength Women Sarcopenia
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors have no conflicts of interest.
- 1.De Luca M, Angrisani L, Himpens J, Busetto L, Scopinaro N, Weiner R, Sartori A, Stier C, Lakdawala M, Bhasker AG, Buchwald H, Dixon J, Chiappetta S, Kolberg HC, Frühbeck G, Sarwer DB, Suter M, Soricelli E, Blüher M, Vilallonga R, Sharma A, Shikora S (2016) Indications for surgery for obesity and weight-related diseases: position statements from the International Federation for the Surgery of Obesity and Metabolic Disorders (IFSO). Obes Surg 26:1659–1696PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 2.World health organization (2000) Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. WHO technical report series, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- 9.Compston JE, Watts NB, Chapurlat R, Cooper C, Boonen S, Greenspan S, Pfeilschifter J, Silverman S, Díez-Pérez A, Lindsay R, Saag KG, Netelenbos JC, Gehlbach S, Hooven FH, Flahive J, Adachi JD, Rossini M, Lacroix AZ, Roux C, Sambrook PN, Siris ES, Glow Investigators (2011) Obesity is not protective against fracture in postmenopausal women: GLOW. Am J Med 124:1043–1050PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 15.Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Bahat G, Bauer J, Boirie Y, Bruyère O, Cederholm T, Cooper C, Landi F, Rolland Y, Sayer AA, Schneider SM, Sieber CC, Topinkova E, Vandewoude M, Visser M, Zamboni M, Writing Group for the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People 2 (EWGSOP2), and the Extended Group for EWGSOP2 (2019) Sarcopenia: revised European consensus on definition and diagnosis. Age Ageing 48:16–31PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 24.Scott D, Seibel M, Cumming R, Naganathan V, Blyth F, Le Couteur DG, Handelsman DJ, Waite LM, Hirani V (2017) Sarcopenic obesity and its temporal associations with changes in bone mineral density, incident falls, and fractures in older men: the concord health and ageing in men project. J Bone Miner Res 32:575–583PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 30.Spira D, Buchmann N, Nikolov J, Demuth I, Steinhagen-Thiessen E, Eckardt R, Norman K (2015) Association of low lean mass with frailty and physical performance: a comparison between two operational definitions of sarcopenia-data from the Berlin aging study II (BASE-II). J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 70:779–784PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 35.Studenski SA, Peters KW, Alley DE, Cawthon PM, McLean RR, Harris TB, Ferrucci L, Guralnik JM, Fragala MS, Kenny AM, Kiel DP, Kritchevsky SB, Shardell MD, Dam TT, Vassileva MT (2014) The FNIH sarcopenia project: rationale, study description, conference recommendations, and final estimates. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 69:547–558PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 44.Beck TJ, Looker AC, Ruff CB, Sievanen H, Wahner HW (2000) Structural trends in the aging femoral neck and proximal shaft: analysis of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry data. J Bone Miner Res 15:2297–2304PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar