Growth pattern of lumbar bone mineral content and trunk muscles in adolescent male soccer players

  • Seira Takei
  • Shuji Taketomi
  • Sakae Tanaka
  • Suguru ToriiEmail author
Original Article



Previous studies have reported that the peak in lean body mass (LBM) precedes the peak in bone mineral content (BMC). However, it is unknown whether the trunk region growth is similar.

Materials and methods

We investigated the difference between pubertal peak age in the increase of LBM in the trunk (trunk LBM) and pubertal peak age in the increase of BMC in the lumbar spine (lumbar BMC) in a longitudinal study of 201 Japanese male adolescent soccer players. The age of peak height velocity (PHV) and the developmental age were calculated. The participants were followed over a 2-year period, with height and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans taken every 6 months.


The trunk LBM (ρ = 0.732, p < 0.0001) and the lumbar BMC (ρ = 0.621, p < 0.0001) significantly correlated with the developmental age. The increase of trunk LBM and lumbar BMC was significantly different according to the developmental stages (Kruskal–Wallis test; p < 0.0001 and p < 0.001, respectively). We used a cubic spline to estimate the developmental age, when the increase reached its peak: the peak age of the increase in trunk LBM was estimated to be – 0.08 years (approximately – 1 month) prior to PHV age, whereas the peak age of the increase in lumbar BMC was estimated to be 0.42 years (approximately 5 months) after the PHV age.


The maximal increase in trunk LBM occurs just before PHV age and approximately 6 months before the maximal increase in lumbar BMC during the pubertal growth spurt in the Japanese adolescent male soccer players.


Lean body mass Bone mass Trunk Growth Peak height velocity age 



We sincerely thank those who participated in this study, Mr. Nao Shinoda at FC GONA, and the TORII laboratory staff’s assistance with data collection.

Author contributions

All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection, and analysis were performed by ST and ST. The first draft of the manuscript was written by ST and reviewed and edited by ST. All authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. Final manuscript was supervised by ST, and all authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors have no conflicts of interest.


  1. 1.
    Rauch F, Bailey DA, Baxter-Jones A, Mirwald R, Faulkner R (2004) The ‘muscle-bone unit’ during the pubertal growth spurt. Bone 34:771–775CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jackowski SA, Faulkner RA, Farthing JP, Kontulainen SA, Beck TJ, Baxter-Jones AD (2009) Peak lean tissue mass accrual precedes changes in bone strength in dices at the proximal femur during the pubertal growth spurt. Bone 44:1186–1190CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Torii S, Iwanuma S, Iizuka S (2016) The timing of peak velocity of height, lean mass and bone mass in healthy Japanese male junior high school students. Jpn J Hum Growth Dev Res 70:11–16 (in Japanese) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Midorikawa T, Ohta M, Hikihara Y, Torii S, Sakamoto S (2017) Predicting skeletal muscle mass from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in Japanese prepubertal children. Eur J Clin Nutr 71:1218–1222CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fuchs RK, Bauer JJ, Snow CM (2001) Jumping improves hip and lumbar spine bone mass in prepubescent children: a randomized controlled trial. J Bone Miner Res 16:148–156CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Borer KT (2005) Physical activity in the prevention and amelioration of osteoporosis in women-interaction of mechanical, hormonal and dietary factors. Sports Med 35:779–830CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Weaver CM, Gordon CM, Janz KF, Kalkwarf HJ, Lappe JM, Lewis R, O’Karma M, Wallace TC, Zemel BS (2016) The National Osteoporosis Foundation’s position statement on peak bone mass development and lifestyle factors: a systematic review and implementation recommendations. Osteoporos Int 27:1281–1386CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Laing EM, Massoni JA, Nickols-Richardson SM (2002) A prospective study of bone mass and body composition in female adolescent gymnasts. J Pediatr 141:211–216CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Barrack MT, Fredericson M, Tenforde AS, Nattiv A (2017) Evidence of a cumulative effect for risk factors predicting low bone mass among male adolescent athletes. Br J Sports Med 51:200–205CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Torii S, Iwanuma S, Iizuka S, Murata Y (2015) A cross-sectional study about the growth pattern of trunk portion in healthy Japanese boys. J Jpn Assoc Hum Auxol 21:23–26 (in Japanese) Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Balagué F, Damidot P, Nordin M, Parnianpour M, Waldburger M (1993) Cross-sectional study of the isokinetic muscle trunk strength among school children. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 18:1199–1205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Harreby M, Nygaard B, Jessen T, Larsen E, Storr-Paulsen A, Lindahl A, Fisker I, Laegaard E (1999) Risk factors for low back pain in a cohort of 1389 Danish school children: an epidemiologic study. Eur Spine J 8:444–450CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sato T, Ito T, Hirano T, Morita O, Kikuchi R, Endo N, Tanabe N (2008) Low back pain in childhood and adolescence: a cross-sectional study in Niigata City. Eur Spine J 17:1441–1447CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Korovessis P, Koureas G, Zacharatos S, Papazisis Z (2005) Backpacks, back pain, sagittal spinal curves and trunk alignment in adolescents: a logistic and multinomial logistic analysis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 30:247–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Potthoff T, de Bruin ED, Rosser S, Humphreys BK, Wirth B (2018) A systematic review on quantifiable physical risk factors for non-specific adolescent low back pain. J Pediatr Rehabil Med 11:79–94CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lardon A, Leboeuf-Yde C, Le Scanff C (2015) Is back pain during childhood or adolescence associated with muscle strength, muscle endurance or aerobic capacity: three systematic literature reviews with one meta-analysis. Chiropr Man Ther 23:21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Feldman DE, Shrier I, Rossignol M, Abenhaim L (2001) Risk factors for the development of low back pain in adolescence. Am J Epidemiol 154:30–36CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lardon A, Leboeuf-Yde C, Le Scanff C, Wedderkopp N (2014) Is puberty a risk factor for back pain in the young? a systematic critical literature review. Chiropr Man Ther 22:27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stracciolini A, Casciano R, Levey Friedman H, Meehan WP III, Micheli LJ (2013) Pediatric sports injuries: an age comparison of children versus adolescents. Am J Sports Med 41:1922–1929CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kessler JI, Nikizad H, Shea KG, Jacobs JC Jr, Bebchuk JD, Weiss JM (2014) The demographics and epidemiology of osteochondritis Dissecans of the knee in children and adolescents. Am J Sports Med 42:320–326CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Vandervliet EJ, Vanhoenacker FM, Snoeckx A, Gielen JL, Van Dyck P, Parizel PM (2007) Sports-related acute and chronic avulsion injuries in children and adolescents with special emphasis on tennis. Br J Sports Med 41:827–831CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yashar A, Loder RT, Hensinger RN (1995) Determination of skeletal age in children with Osgood–Schlatter disease by using radiographs of the knee. J Pediatr Orthop 15:298–301CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bailey DA, Wedge JH, McCulloch RG, Martin AD, Bernhardson SC (1989) Epidemiology of fractures of the distal end of the radius in children as associated with growth. J Bone Jt Surg Am 71:1225–1231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rossi F, Dragoni S (2001) Acute avulsion fractures of the pelvis in adolescent competitive athletes: prevalence, location and sports distribution of 203 cases collected. Skeletal Radiol 30:127–131CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Abalo A, Akakpo-numado KG, Dossim A, Walla A, Gnassingbe K, Tekou AH (2008) Avulsion fractures of the tibial tubercle. J Orthop Surg Hong Kong 16:308–311CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zwick EB, Kocher R (2014) Growth dynamics in the context of pediatric sports injuries and overuse. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 18:465–468CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chilibeck PD, Sale DG, Webber CE (1995) Exercise and bone mineral density. Sports Med 19:103–122CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Slemenda CW, Miller JZ, Hui SL, Reister TK, Johnston CC (1991) Role of physical activity in the development of skeletal mass in children. J Bone Miner Res 6:1227–1233CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Beck BR, Snow CM (2003) Bone health across the lifespan—exercising our options. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 31:117–122CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Warburton DER, Nicol CW, Bredin SSD (2006) Health benefits of physical activity: the evidence. Can Med Assoc J 174:801–809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fukunaga T, Miyatani M, Tachi M, Kouzaki M, Kawakami Y, Kanehisa H (2001) Muscle volume is a major determinant of joint torque in humans. Acta Physiol Scand 172:249–255CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Roche MB, Rowe GG (1952) The incidence of separate neural arch and coincident bone variations; a summary. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 34–A:491–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Roche MB, Rowe GG (1951) The incidence of separate neural arch and coincident bone variations; a survey of 4,200 skeletons. Anat Rec 109:233–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rossi F (1978) Spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis and sports. J Sports Med Phys Fit 18:317–340Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Seeman E, Hopper JL, Young NR, Formica C, Goss P, Tsalamandris C (1996) Do genetic factors explain associations between muscle strength, lean mass, and bone density? A twin study. Am J Physiol 270:E320–E327PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Japanese Society Bone and Mineral Research and Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seira Takei
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shuji Taketomi
    • 1
  • Sakae Tanaka
    • 1
  • Suguru Torii
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Sensory and Motor System Medicine, Graduate School of MedicineThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Faculty of Sport SciencesWaseda UniversityTokorozawaJapan

Personalised recommendations