Effect of denosumab administration on low bone mineral density (T-score −1.0 to −2.5) in postmenopausal Japanese women receiving adjuvant aromatase inhibitors for non-metastatic breast cancer
Although adjuvant aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy is widely used in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, it is known to be associated with bone loss and increased fracture risk. Denosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody against the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, has been shown to protect against AI-induced bone loss. However, the efficacy of denosumab in the treatment of AI-associated bone loss has not been prospectively evaluated in Japan. We prospectively monitored bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and bilateral femoral necks in 100 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive postoperative breast cancer of clinical stage I–IIIA in whom treatment with AI as adjuvant endocrine therapy was planned or had been ongoing. Study participants received supplemental calcium and vitamin D every day and denosumab (60 mg) subcutaneously every 6 months. At enrollment, patients were required to have evidence of low bone mass without meeting the criteria for osteoporosis. The primary endpoint was percentage change from baseline in lumbar spine BMD at month 12. At 6 and 12 months, lumbar spine BMD increased by 3.3 and 4.7%, respectively. BMD of the femoral necks also increased. Hypocalcemia of grade ≥2, osteonecrosis of the jaw, and non-traumatic clinical fracture did not occur. In conclusion, semi-annual treatment with denosumab was associated with increased BMD in Japanese women receiving adjuvant AI therapy, regardless of prior AI treatment.
KeywordsBreast cancer Aromatase inhibitor Denosumab Bone mineral density
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 2.Coleman RE, Banks LM, Girgis SI, Kilburn LS, Vrdoljak E, Fox J, Cawthorn SJ, Patel A, Snowdon CF, Hall E, Bliss JM (2007) Skeletal effects of exemestane on bone-mineral density, bone biomarkers, and fracture incidence in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer participating in the Intergroup Exemestane Study (IES): a randomised controlled study. Lancet Oncol 8:119–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 5.Baum M, Buzdar A, Cuzick J, Forbes J, Houghton A, Howell A, Sahmoud T, ATAC (Arimidex, Tamoxifen Alone or in Combination) Trialists Group (2003) Anastrozole alone or in combination with tamoxifen versus tamoxifen alone for adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer: results of the ATAC (Arimidex, Tamoxifen Alone or in Combination) trial efficacy and safety update analyses. Cancer 98:1802–1810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 7.Goss PE, Ingle JN, Martino S, Robert NJ, Muss HB, Piccart MJ, Castiglione M, Tu D, Shepherd LE, Pritchard KI, Livingston RB, Davidson NE, Norton L, Perez EA, Abrams JS, Therasse P, Palmer MJ, Pater JL (2003) A randomized trial of letrozole in postmenopausal women after 5 years of tamoxifen therapy for early-stage breast cancer. N Engl J Med 349:1793–1802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 8.Lonning PE, Geisler J, Krag LE, Erikstein B, Bremnes Y, Hagen AI, Schlichting E, Lien EA, Ofjord ES, Paolini J, Polli A, Massimini G (2005) Effects of exemestane administered for 2 years versus placebo on bone mineral density, bone biomarkers, and plasma lipids in patients with surgically resected early breast cancer. Clin Oncol 23:5126–5137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 11.Yasuda H, Shima N, Nakagawa N, Yamaguchi K, Kinosaki M, Mochizuki S, Tomoyasu A, Yano K, Goto M, Murakami A, Tsuda E, Morinaga T, Higashio K, Udagawa N, Takahashi N, Suda T (1998) Osteoclast differentiation factor is a ligand for osteoprotegerin/osteoclastogenesis-inhibitory factor and is identical to TRANCE/RANKL. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:3597–3602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 16.Baum M, Budzar AU, Cuzick J, Forbes J, Houghton JH, Klijn JG, Sahmoud T, ATAC Trialists Group (2002) Anastrozole alone or in combination with tamoxifen versus tamoxifen alone for adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal women with early breast cancer: first results of the ATAC randomised trial. Lancet 359:2131–2139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 17.Coates AS, Winer EP, Goldhirsch A, Gelber RD, Gnant M, Piccart-Gebhart M, Thurlimann B, Senn HJ, Panel Members (2015) Tailoring therapies–improving the management of early breast cancer: St Gallen international expert consensus on the primary therapy of early breast cancer 2015. Ann Oncol 26:1533–1546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 19.Hadji P, Aapro MS, Body JJ, Gnant M, Brandi ML et al (2017) Management of Aromatase Inhibitor-Associated Bone Loss (AIBL) in postmenopausal women with hormone sensitive breast cancer: Joint position statement of the IOF, CABS, ECTS, IEG, ESCEO, IMS, and SIOG. J Bone Oncol 7:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 24.Early Breast Cancer Trialists Collaborative Group (EBCTCG), Coleman R, Powles T, Paterson A, Gnant M, Anderson S, Diel I, Gralow J, van Minckwitz G, Moebus V, Bergh J, Pritchard KI, Bliss J, Cameron D, Evans V, Pan H, Peto R, Bradley R, Gray R (2015) Adjuvant bisphosphonate treatment in early breast cancer: meta-analyses of individual patient data from randomized trials. Lancet 386:1353–1361CrossRefGoogle Scholar