Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism

, Volume 34, Issue 6, pp 714–722 | Cite as

Expected lifetime numbers, risks, and burden of osteoporotic fractures for 50-year old Chinese women: a discrete event simulation incorporating FRAX

  • Yawen JiangEmail author
  • Weiyi Ni
Original Article


This work was undertaken to provide an estimation of expected lifetime numbers, risks, and burden of fractures for 50-year-old Chinese women. A discrete event simulation model was developed to simulate the lifetime fractures of 50-year-old Chinese women at average risk of osteoporotic fracture. Main events in the model included hip fracture, clinical vertebral fracture, wrist fracture, humerus fracture, and other fracture. Fracture risks were calculated using the FRAX® tool. Simulations of 50-year-old Chinese women without fracture risks were also carried out as a comparison to determine the burden of fractures. A 50-year-old Chinese woman at average risk of fracture is expected to experience 0.135 (95 % CI: 0.134–0.137) hip fractures, 0.120 (95 % CI: 0.119–0.122) clinical vertebral fractures, 0.095 (95 % CI: 0.094–0.096) wrist fractures, 0.079 (95 % CI: 0.078–0.080) humerus fractures, and 0.407 (95 % CI: 0.404–0.410) other fractures over the remainder of her life. The residual lifetime risk of any fracture, hip fracture, clinical vertebral fracture, wrist fracture, humerus fracture, and other fracture for a 50-year-old Chinese woman is 37.36, 11.77, 10.47, 8.61, 7.30, and 27.80 %, respectively. The fracture-attributable excess quality-adjusted life year (QALY) loss and lifetime costs are estimated at 0.11 QALYs (95 % CI: 0.00–0.22 QALYs) and US $714.61 (95 % CI: US $709.20–720.02), totaling a net monetary benefit loss of US $1,104.43 (95 % CI: US $904.09–1,304.78). Chinese women 50 years of age are at high risk of osteoporotic fracture, and the expected economic and quality-of-life burden attributable to osteoporotic fractures among Chinese women is substantial.


Simulation Osteoporosis Risk Burden 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Both authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

774_2015_724_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (166 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 166 kb)


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Copyright information

© The Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research and Springer Japan 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical and Health Economics, Leonard D. Schaeffer Center for Health Policy and EconomicsSchool of Pharmacy, University of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

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