Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism

, Volume 32, Issue 4, pp 411–419 | Cite as

The benefits of a high-intensity aquatic exercise program (HydrOS) for bone metabolism and bone mass of postmenopausal women

  • Linda Denise Fernandes MoreiraEmail author
  • Fernanda Cerveira A. O. Fronza
  • Rodrigo Nolasco dos Santos
  • Patrícia Lins Zach
  • Ilda S. Kunii
  • Lilian Fukusima Hayashi
  • Luzimar Raimundo Teixeira
  • Luis Fernando Martins Kruel
  • Marise Lazaretti Castro
Original Article


This study aimed to evaluate the 24-week effects of a high-intensity aquatic exercise program on bone remodeling markers and bone mass of postmenopausal women. In this randomized, controlled trial we studied 108 women (58.8 ± 6.4 years), randomized into Aquatic Exercise Group (AEG), n = 64, performing 24 weeks of aquatic exercises, and Control Group (CG), n = 44, sedentary. They had their fasting morning blood sample collected for the measures of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx). Bone mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry before and after the intervention. Participants of both groups received a daily supplementation of 500 mg of elementary calcium and 1,000 IU of vitamin D (cholecalciferol). Results showed an augment in bone formation marker (P1NP) only in the AEG (15.8 %; p = 0.001), and although both groups experienced significant enhancements in bone resorption marker (CTx), this increase was less considerable in the AEG (15 % in the AEG and 29 % in the CG). IPTH was increased by 19 % in the CG (p = 0.003) at the end. The femoral trochanter BMD presented a 1.2 % reduction in the CG (p = 0.009), whereas in the AEG no change was observed (p = 0.069). The proposed aquatic exercise program was efficient in attenuating bone resorption raise and enhancing bone formation, which prevented the participants in the AEG from reducing the femoral trochanter BMD, as happened in the CG.


Osteoporosis Bone remodeling markers Bone mass Aquatic exercise Postmenopause 



This study was supported by FAPESP (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo), grant No. 08/50179-9.

Conflict of interest

All authors have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© The Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research and Springer Japan 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Linda Denise Fernandes Moreira
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  • Fernanda Cerveira A. O. Fronza
    • 2
  • Rodrigo Nolasco dos Santos
    • 1
  • Patrícia Lins Zach
    • 1
  • Ilda S. Kunii
    • 1
  • Lilian Fukusima Hayashi
    • 1
  • Luzimar Raimundo Teixeira
    • 2
  • Luis Fernando Martins Kruel
    • 3
  • Marise Lazaretti Castro
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Endocrinology, School of MedicineFederal University of São Paulo/UNIFESPSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.School of Physical Education and Sport of the University of São Paulo/USPSão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Exercise Research Laboratory, School of Physical EducationFederal University of Rio Grande do Sul/UFRGSPorto AlegreBrazil
  4. 4.Ambulatório de Endocrinologia-UNIFESPSão PauloBrazil

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