Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism

, Volume 31, Issue 5, pp 486–495 | Cite as

IL-34 and CSF-1: similarities and differences

  • Yuko NakamichiEmail author
  • Nobuyuki Udagawa
  • Naoyuki Takahashi
Invited Review


Colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) is widely expressed and considered to regulate the development, maintenance, and function of mononuclear phagocyte lineage cells such as monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs), Langerhans cells (LCs), microglia, and osteoclasts. Interleukin-34 (IL-34) was recently identified as an alternative ligand for the CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R) through functional proteomics experiments. It is well established that the phenotype of CSF-1R-deficient (CSF-1R−/−) mice is more severe than that of mice bearing a spontaneous null mutation in CSF-1 (CSF-1op/op). CSF-1R−/− mice are severely depleted of macrophages and completely lack LCs, microglia, and osteoclasts during their lifetime. In contrast, CSF-1op/op mice exhibit late-onset macrophage development and osteoclastogenesis, whereas they show modestly reduced numbers of microglia and a relatively normal LC development. In contrast, IL-34-deficient (IL-34−/−) mice show a marked reduction of LCs and a decrease in microglia. IL-34 and CSF-1 display different spatiotemporal expression patterns and have distinct biological functions. In this review, we focus on the functional similarities and differences between IL-34 and CSF-1 in vivo.


IL-34 CSF-1 CSF-1R MPS (mononuclear phagocyte system) Macrophage 



We thank Dr. Takashi Nakamura (Keio University) for providing us with generous assistance and valuable information in the preparation of this manuscript.

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© The Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research and Springer Japan 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuko Nakamichi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nobuyuki Udagawa
    • 2
  • Naoyuki Takahashi
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Oral ScienceMatsumoto Dental UniversityShiojiriJapan
  2. 2.Department of BiochemistryMatsumoto Dental UniversityShiojiriJapan

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