Cooperative effect of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and a polymorphism of transforming growth factor-β1 gene on the prevalence of vertebral fractures in postmenopausal osteoporosis
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A T869→C polymorphism of the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) gene is reported to be associated with genetic susceptibility to both osteoporosis and vertebral fractures. A low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level is known to be associated with a higher risk for hip fracture. This study aimed to assess a possible cooperative effect of the gene polymorphism and vitamin D status on vertebral fracture risk. The prevalence of vertebral fracture in 168 postmenopausal female patients with osteoporosis was analyzed, and its association with the TGF-β1 gene polymorphism and serum 25(OH)D concentration was assessed cross-sectionally. The fracture prevalence increased according to the rank order of the TGF-β1 genotypes CC < CT < TT, as expected. A significant difference was found not only between the CC and TT genotypes (P = 0.005) but also between the CC and CT genotypes (P < 0.05) when the patients with serum 25(OH)D of more than the median value [22 ng/ml (55 nmol/l)] were analyzed. On the other hand, when those with serum 25(OH)D of less than the median value were analyzed, the protective effect of the C allele against the fracture was blunted; statistical significance in the difference of the fracture prevalence was lost between the CC genotype and the other genotypes. These data suggest that vitamin D fulfillment is prerequisite for the TGF-β1 genotype in exerting its full effect on the fracture prevalence.
KeywordsGene polymorphism Transforming growth factor-β Vertebral fracture Vitamin D Osteoporosis
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