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Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism

, Volume 27, Issue 5, pp 598–604 | Cite as

Lower bone mineral density in children with type 1 diabetes is associated with poor glycemic control and higher serum ICAM-1 and urinary isoprostane levels

  • Kaire Heilman
  • Mihkel Zilmer
  • Kersti Zilmer
  • Vallo Tillmann
Original Article

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to investigate bone mineral density (BMD) in children with type 1 diabetes (DM1) and to establish the relationships between BMD, physical activity, glycemic control, and markers of systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. We studied 30 children with DM1, aged 4.7–18.6 years, and 30 healthy subjects, matched by sex, age, and body mass index (BMI). Mean duration of DM1 was 5.4 ± 3.4 years and mean glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level over 12 months was 9.8 ± 1.5%. Lumbar and total bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We calculated the apparent volumetric lumbar BMD (BMDvol, g/cm3) and total mineral content adjusted for age and height (BMCadj), and measured plasma intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2a (F2-IsoPs). Calcium (Ca) intake was assessed by questionnaire and physical activity by questionnaire and accelerometer (ActiGraph, count/h). Total BMCadj and lumbar BMDvol were significantly lower in children with DM1 than in controls (101.8 ± 7.7 vs. 107 ± 5.7%, P = 0.005; 0.32 ± 0.08 vs. 0.36 ± 0.09 g/cm3, P = 0.05, respectively). These differences were mostly caused by the differences in boys. Plasma ICAM-1 and hs-CRP levels were significantly higher in the DM1 group compared to the controls. Ca intake and urine F2-IsoPs levels were similar between the groups. Diabetic boys were less active than controls (18231 ± 6613 vs. 24145 ± 7449 count/h, P = 0.04). In the DM1 group, lumbar BMDvol correlated inversely with urinary F2-IsoPs (r = −0.5; P = 0.005) and plasma ICAM-1 levels (r = −0.4; P = 0.02), and also with HbA1c levels after adjustment for age (r = −0.45; P < 0.05). Total BMCadj correlated inversely with HbA1c levels (r = −0.4; P = 0.02). We conclude that children with DM1, particularly boys, have lower BMD. Poor glycemic control, elevated markers of oxidative stress, and inflammation are associated with lower BMD.

Keywords

Diabetes Children Bone density Inflammation Oxidative stress 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was funded by Estonian Science Foundation Grant Nr. 6588, the targeted financed grants SF0182695s05 and SF0180105s08 from the Ministry of Science and Education. Support was also given by the European Union through the European Regional Development Fund.

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Copyright information

© The Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research and Springer 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kaire Heilman
    • 1
  • Mihkel Zilmer
    • 2
  • Kersti Zilmer
    • 2
  • Vallo Tillmann
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PaediatricsUniversity of TartuTartuEstonia
  2. 2.Department of Biochemistry, Centre of Molecular and Clinical MedicineUniversity of TartuTartuEstonia

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