Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism

, Volume 25, Issue 3, pp 165–171 | Cite as

Relative contribution of body composition to bone mineral density at different sites in men and women of South Korea

  • Lian-Hua Cui
  • Min-Ho Shin
  • Sun-Seog Kweon
  • Kyeong-Soo Park
  • Young-Hoon Lee
  • Eun-Kyung Chung
  • Hae-Sung Nam
  • Jin-Su ChoiEmail author


We examined the relative contribution of body composition to bone mineral density (BMD) at various sites in 1406 Korean rural men and women, aged 19–80 years, from July to August 2004. The BMD was measured at peripheral (distal forearm and calcaneus) and central (lumbar spine at L1–L4, femoral neck, trochanter, and Ward's triangle) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In multivariate analyses, the linear regression models were adjusted for relevant covariates. In premenopausal women, only lean mass had a significant positive correlation with BMD at all sites. In postmenopausal women, fat mass was significantly positively correlated with BMD at all sites, except the Ward's triangle; fat mass was the only determinant of BMD at the lumbar, distal forearm, and calcaneus sites, whereas both lean and fat mass contributed to BMD at the hip, with the effect of lean mass being slightly greater than that of fat mass. In younger men, lean mass had a significant positive contribution to BMD at all sites, whereas fat mass appeared to contribute negatively to BMD at all sites, except the calcaneus. In older men, lean mass made a significant positive contribution to the BMD at all sites; fat mass also made a significant positive contribution to the BMD at the forearm and calcaneus. These data indicate that in the Korean rural population, lean mass may be an important determinant of the BMD, whereas fat mass may contribute positively to BMD only in postmenopausal women and older men.

Key words

bone mineral density body composition men and women 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Felson, DT, Zhang, Y, Hannan, MT, Anderson, JJ 1993Effects of weight and body mass index on bone mineral density in men and women: the Framingham studyJ Bone Miner Res8567573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Reid, IR, Ames, R, Evans, MC, Sharpe, S, Gamble, G, France, JT, Lim, TM, Cundy, TF 1992Determinants of total body and regional bone mineral density in normal postmenopausal women—a key role for fat massJ Clin Endocrinol Metab754551PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Reid, IR 2002Relationships among body mass, its components, and boneBone (NY)31547555Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Douchi, T, Yamamoto, S, Nakamura, S, Oki, T, Maruta, K, Nagata, Y 1999Bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with endometrial cancerMaturitas31165170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chen, Z, Lohman, TG, Stini, WA, Ritenbaugh, C, Aickin, M 1997Fat or lean tissue mass: which one is the major determinant of bone mineral mass in healthy postmenopausal women?J Bone Miner Res12144151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Compston, JE, Bhambhani, M, Laskey, MA, Murphy, S, Khaw, KT 1992Body composition and bone mass in post-menopausal womenClin Endocrinol (Oxf)37426431Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Douchi, T, Kuwahata, R, Matsuo, T, Uto, H, Oki, T, Nagata, Y 2003Relative contribution of lean and fat mass component to bone mineral density in malesJ Bone Miner Metab211721PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Van Langendonck, L, Claessens, AL, Lefevre, J, Thomis, M, Philippaerts, R, Delvaux, K, Lysens, R, Vanden Eynde, B, Beunen, G 2002Association between bone mineral density (DXA), body structure, and body composition in middle-aged menAm J Hum Biol14735742PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Edelstein, SL, Barrett-Connor, E 1993Relation between body size and bone mineral density in elderly men and womenAm J Epidemiol138160169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Makovey, J, Naganathan, V, Sambrook, P 2005Gender differences in relationships between body composition components, their distribution and bone mineral density: a cross-sectional opposite sex twin studyOsteoporos Int1614951505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Morita, R, Yamamoto, I, Takada, M, Yuu, I, Ohta, T, Matsushita, R, Hamanaka, Y 1998Recent development and clinical application of bone mineral measurementsNippon Rinsho5614581463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jukka, AS 2003Body composition assessment with segmental multifrequency bioimpedance methodJ Sports Sci Med2129Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Malavolti, M, Mussi, C, Poli, M, Fantuzzi, AL, Salvioli, G, Battistini, N, Bedogni, G 2003Cross-calibration of eight-polar bioelectrical impedance analysis versus dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for the assessment of total and appendicular body composition in healthy subjects aged 21–82 yearsAnn Hum Biol30380391PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Felson, DT, Zhang, Y, Hannan, MT, Kannel, WB, Kiel, DP 1995Alcohol intake and bone mineral density in elderly men and women. The Framngham StudyAm J Epidemiol142485492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Guo, Y, Zhao, LJ, Shen, H, Guo, Y, Deng, HW 2005Genetic and environmental correlations between age at menarche and bone mineral density at different skeletal sitesCalcif Tissue Int77356360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kaji, H, Kosaka, R, Yamauchi, M, Kuno, K, Chihara, K, Sugimoto, T 2005Effects of age, grip strength and smoking on forearm volumetric bone mineral density and bone geometry by peripheral quantitative computed tomography: comparisons between female and maleEndocr J52659666PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kantor, SM, Ossa, KS, Hoshaw-Woodard, SL, Lemeshow, S 2004Height loss and osteoporosis of the hipJ Clin Densitom76570PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ward, KD, Klesges, RC 2001A meta-analysis of the effects of cigarette smoking on bone mineral densityCalcif Tissue Int68259270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zhang, HC, Kushida, K, Atsumi, K, Kin, K, Nagano, A 2002Effects of age and menopause on spinal bone mineral density in Japanese women: a ten-year prospective studyCalcif Tissue Int70153157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Liu, JM, Zhao, HY, Ning, G, Zhao, YJ, Zhang, LZ, Sun, LH, Xu, MY, Chen, JL 2004Relationship between body composition and bone mineral density in healthy young and premenopausal Chinese womenOsteoporos Int15238242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Reid, IR, Plank, LD, Evans, MC 1992Fat mass is an important determinant of whole body bone density in premenopausal women but not in menJ Clin Endocrinol Metab75779782PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wang, MC, Bachrach, LK, Van Loan, M, Hudes, M, Flegal, KM, Crawford, PB 2005The relative contributions of lean tissue mass and fat mass to bone density in young womenBone (NY)37474481Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nakaoka, D, Sugimoto, T, Kaji, H, Kanzawa, M, Yano, S, Yamauchi, M, Sugishita, T, Chihara, K 2001Determinants of bone mineral density and spinal fracture risk in postmenopausal Japanese womenOsteoporos Int12548554PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gillette-Guyonnet, S, Nourhashemi, F, Lauque, S, Grandjean, H, Vellas, B 2000Body composition and osteoporosis in elderly womenGerontology46189193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pluijm, SM, Visser, M, Smit, JH, Popp-Snijders, C, Roos, JC, Lips, P 2001Determinants of bone mineral density in older men and women: body composition as mediatorJ Bone Miner Res1621422151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Grodin, JM, Siiteri, PK, MacDonald, PC 1973Source of estrogen production in postmenopausal womenJ Clin Endocrinol Metab36207214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Amin, S, Zhang, Y, Sawin, CT, Evans, SR, Hannan, MT, Kiel, DP, Wilson, PW, Felson, DT 2000Association of hypogonadism and estradiol levels with bone mineral density in elderly men from the Framingham studyAnn Intern Med133951963PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Greendale, GA, Edelstein, S, Barrett-Connor, E 1997Endogenous sex steroids and bone mineral density in older women and men: the Rancho Bernardo StudyJ Bone Miner Res1218331843PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Szulc, P, Munoz, F, Claustrat, B, Garnero, P, Marchand, F, Duboeuf, F, Delmas, PD 2001Bioavailable estradiol may be an important determinant of osteoporosis in men: the MINOS studyJ Clin Endocrinol Metab86192199PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Reed, BY, Zerwekh, JE, Sakhaee, K, Breslau, NA, Gottschalk, F, Pak, CY 1995Serum IGF 1 is low and correlated with osteoblastic surface in idiopathic osteoporosisJ Bone Miner Res1012181224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rhee, EJ, Oh, KW, Lee, WY, Kim, SW, Oh, ES, Baek, KH, Kang, MI, Park, CY, Choi, MG, Yoo, HJ, Park, SW 2004Age, body mass index, current smoking history, and serum insulin-like growth factor-I levels associated with bone mineral density in middle-aged Korean menJ Bone Miner Metab22392398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Considine, RV, Sinha, MK, Heiman, ML, Kriauciunas, A, Stephens, TW, Nyce, MR, Ohannesian, JP, Marco, CC, McKee, LJ, Bauer, TL,  et al. 1996Serum immunoreactive-leptin concentrations in normal-weight and obese humansN Engl J Med334292295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Thomas, T, Burguera, B, Melton, LJ,3rd, Atkinson, EJ, O'Fallon, WM, Riggs, BL, Khosla, S 2000Relationship of serum leptin levels with body composition and sex steroid and insulin levels in men and womenMetabolism4912781284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Goulding, A, Taylor, RW 1998Plasma leptin values in relation to bone mass and density and to dynamic biochemical markers of bone resorption and formation in postmenopausal womenCalcif Tissue Int63456458PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Martini, G, Valenti, R, Giovani, S, Franci, B, Campagna, S, Nuti, R 2001Influence of insulin-like growth factor-1 and leptin on bone mass in healthy postmenopausal womenBone (NY)28113117Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sahin, G, Polat, G, Baethis, S, Milcan, A, Baethdatoethlu, O, Erdoethan, C, Camdeviren, H 2003Body composition, bone mineral density, and circulating leptin levels in postmenopausal Turkish womenRheumatol Int238791PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kontogianni, MD, Dafni, UG, Routsias, JG, Skopouli, FN 2004Blood leptin and adiponectin as possible mediators of the relation between fat mass and BMD in perimenopausal womenJ Bone Miner Res19546551PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Park, HS, Park, JY, Yu, R 2005Relationship of obesity and visceral adiposity with serum concentrations of CRP, TNF-alpha and IL-6Diabetes Res Clin Pract692935PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Reinehr, T, Stoffel-Wagner, B, Roth, CL, Andler, W 2005High-sensitive C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and cardiovascular risk factors before and after weight loss in obese childrenMetabolism5411551161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Thorand, B, Baumert, J, Doring, A, Herder, C, Kolb, H, Rathmann, W, Giani, G, Koenig, W 2006Sex differences in the relation of body composition to markers of inflammationAtherosclerosis184216224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Eastell, R, Mosekilde, L, Hodgson, SF, Riggs, BL 1990Proportion of human vertebral body bone that is cancellousJ Bone Miner Res512371241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Patel, PV, Prevrhal, S, Bauer, JS, Phan, C, Eckstein, F, Lochmuller, EM, Majumdar, S, Link, TM 2005Trabecular bone structure obtained from multislice spiral computed tomography of the calcaneus predicts osteoporotic vertebral deformitiesJ Comput Assist Tomogr29246253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Jankowska, EA, Rogucka, E, Medras, M 2001Are general obesity and visceral adiposity in men linked to reduced bone mineral content resulting from normal ageing? A population-based studyAndrologia33384389PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lian-Hua Cui
    • 1
    • 3
  • Min-Ho Shin
    • 1
  • Sun-Seog Kweon
    • 2
  • Kyeong-Soo Park
    • 2
  • Young-Hoon Lee
    • 1
  • Eun-Kyung Chung
    • 4
  • Hae-Sung Nam
    • 5
  • Jin-Su Choi
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Preventive MedicineChonnam National University Medical SchoolGwangjuSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of Preventive MedicineCollege of Medicine, Seonam UniversityNamwonSouth Korea
  3. 3.Department of Preventive MedicineQingdao University Medical CollegeQingdaoChina
  4. 4.Department of Medical EducationChonnam National University Medical SchoolGwangjuSouth Korea
  5. 5.Department of Preventive MedicineCollege of Medicine, Chungnam National UniversityDaejeonSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations