Journal of Marine Science and Technology

, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 40–46 | Cite as

On the time dependence of survivability of ROPAX ships

  • Dimitris A. SpanosEmail author
  • Apostolos D. Papanikolaou
Original article


The time dependence of survivability of ROPAX vessels, when sustaining side collision damage in waves, is investigated herein by use of numerical simulations of ship motion and flooding. Conducted research confirms that ROPAX ships characteristically capsize fast, when sustaining damage leading to capsizing. A probabilistic analysis of the survive time after collision damage reveals that even for the most generic damage conditions assumed, the survival time in the case of capsizing remains short, which is characteristic of this type of ship design, disposing the typically large undivided deck to be subject to flooding in higher waves. In a case study, the unconditional survivability in waves, corresponding to survival s-factor of SOLAS regulations, is alternatively assessed with numerical simulations. The estimated survivability proves to be time independent in terms of practical implications. Observed deviations between current SOLAS formulation and simulations, suggest the employment of comprehensive simulation methods when more reliable estimations and assessments of survivability are required.


Time to capsize Survivability Capsize Simulation Flooding Damage stability ROPAX 



The published results herein were partially deduced from studies conducted within the European Commission research projects FLOODSTAND (Integrated Flooding Control and Standard for Stability and Crises Management, SCP7-GA-2009-218532), and GOALDS (Goal Based Damage Stability, FP7-SST-2008-RTD-1-233876). The European Commission and the authors shall not in any way be liable or responsible for the use of any knowledge, information or data presented, or of the consequences thereof.


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Copyright information

© JASNAOE 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dimitris A. Spanos
    • 1
    Email author
  • Apostolos D. Papanikolaou
    • 1
  1. 1.Ship Design Laboratory of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA-SDL)AthensGreece

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