On the time dependence of survivability of ROPAX ships
The time dependence of survivability of ROPAX vessels, when sustaining side collision damage in waves, is investigated herein by use of numerical simulations of ship motion and flooding. Conducted research confirms that ROPAX ships characteristically capsize fast, when sustaining damage leading to capsizing. A probabilistic analysis of the survive time after collision damage reveals that even for the most generic damage conditions assumed, the survival time in the case of capsizing remains short, which is characteristic of this type of ship design, disposing the typically large undivided deck to be subject to flooding in higher waves. In a case study, the unconditional survivability in waves, corresponding to survival s-factor of SOLAS regulations, is alternatively assessed with numerical simulations. The estimated survivability proves to be time independent in terms of practical implications. Observed deviations between current SOLAS formulation and simulations, suggest the employment of comprehensive simulation methods when more reliable estimations and assessments of survivability are required.
KeywordsTime to capsize Survivability Capsize Simulation Flooding Damage stability ROPAX
The published results herein were partially deduced from studies conducted within the European Commission research projects FLOODSTAND (Integrated Flooding Control and Standard for Stability and Crises Management, SCP7-GA-2009-218532), and GOALDS (Goal Based Damage Stability, FP7-SST-2008-RTD-1-233876). The European Commission and the authors shall not in any way be liable or responsible for the use of any knowledge, information or data presented, or of the consequences thereof.
- 1.IMO (2006) Resolution MSC.216 (82) adoption of amendments to the international convention for the safety of life at sea, 1974, as amended, December 8Google Scholar
- 2.IMO (2004) MSC. 78/WP.14, large passenger ship safety, report of the working group, 20 MayGoogle Scholar
- 3.De Kat JO (1988) Large amplitude ship motions and capsizing in severe sea conditions. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of California, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
- 4.Lutzen M (2001) Ship collision damage, Ph.D. thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of DenmarkGoogle Scholar
- 5.Papanikolaou A, Spanos D (2008) Benchmark study on numerical codes for the prediction of damage ship stability in waves. In: Proceedings of 10th international. ship stability workshop, Daejeon, Republic of KoreaGoogle Scholar
- 6.Rask I (2010) Benchmark data on time to capsize for a free drifting model, E.U. research project FLOODSTAND, integrated flooding control and standard for stability and crises management, FP7-RTD-218532, Rep.4.1.a, rev.2Google Scholar
- 7.Spanos DA, Papanikolaou A (2001) On the stability of fishing vessels with trapped water on deck. J Ship Technol Res Schiffstechnik, vol 48Google Scholar
- 8.Spanos DA (2002) Time domain simulation of motion and flooding of damaged ships in waves. Doctoral Thesis, Ship Design Laboratory, National Technical University of AthensGoogle Scholar
- 9.Spanos DA, Papanikolaou A (2007) On the time to capsize of a damaged RoRo/passenger ship in waves, 9th international ship stability workshop. Hamburg, GermanyGoogle Scholar
- 10.Spanos DA, Papanikolaou A (2010) On the time dependent survivability of ROPAX ships, 11th international ship stability workshop. Wageningen, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
- 11.Vassalos D, Pawlowski M, Turan O (1996) A theoretical investigation on the capsizal resistance of passenger/RoRo vessels and proposal of survival criteria, Final Report, Task 5, The Joint R&D ProjectGoogle Scholar