Designing a formulation of synthetic wastewater as proficiency testing sample: a feasibility study on a laboratory scale

  • Fransiska Sri Herwahyu KrismastutiEmail author
  • Nuryatini Hamim
General Paper


Monitoring water quality is very crucial for sustainability and availability of clean water on earth. Electrolytic conductivity is one of the important water quality parameters to be monitored according to American Environmental Protection Agency, World Health Organization and Ministry of Environment and Forests Republic of Indonesia. Testing laboratories have a significant role in producing the accurate measurement related to the water quality parameters including electrolytic conductivity. Therefore, participating in a proficiency testing (PT) is mandatory, especially for the accredited testing laboratories, to demonstrate the competency of laboratories in doing the measurement. As PT provider, Chemical Metrology Laboratory held annual PT round since 2013. In 2018 PT round, the Chemical Metrology Laboratory provided a PT to measure the electrolytic conductivity of synthetic wastewater. Before preparing the PT test samples, the feasibility study was conducted to determine the best formulation of synthetic wastewater. During this study, two different formulations were compared in terms of simplicity formulation, electrolytic conductivity value, total dissolved solid/electrolytic conductivity conversion value, homogeneity and stability of the synthetic wastewater. The results show that both candidates are sufficient to be used as PT test samples; however, only one candidate was selected due to its ease and simplicity formulation.


Synthetic wastewater Electrolytic conductivity PT test sample Feasibility study 



The author would like to thank Ms. Nurhani Aryana for her assistance in statistical calculation and fruitful discussion during this study.


  1. 1.
    EPA (2001) Parameters of water quality interpretation and standards. Environmental Protection Agency, WexfordGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    WHO (2017) Water safety and quality. Accessed 12 Apr 2018
  3. 3.
    WHO (1997) Guidelines for drinking-water quality. WHO Library Cataloguing, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    WHO (2008) Guidelines for drinking-water quality: incorporating the first and second addenda, vol 1, 3rd edn. WHO Press, GenewaGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Indonesia MLHR (2014) Peraturan Menteri Lingkungan Hidup Republik Indonesia No 5 tahun 2014. Kementerian Hukum dan Hak Asasi Manusia Republik Indonesia, JakartaGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Máriássy M, Pratt KW, Spitzer P (2009) Major applications of electrochemical techniques at national metrology institutes. Metrologia 46:199–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Orrù E (2014) Traceability of electrolytic conductivity measurements for ultra pure water. Politecnico Di Torino, GiugnoGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ali NS, Mo K, Kim M (2012) A case study on the relationship between conductivity and dissolved solids to evaluate the potential for reuse of reclaimed industrial wastewater. KSCE J Civ Eng 16:708–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bauder TA, Waskom RM, Sutherland PL, Davis JG (2011) Irrigation water quality criteria. Colorado State University 0.506Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Walton NRG (1989) Electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids—what is their precise relationship? Desalination 72:275–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hubert E, Wolkersdorfer C (2015) Establishing a conversion factor between electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids in South African mine waters. Afr J Online 41:490–500Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    McNeil VH, Cox ME (2000) Relationship between conductivity and analysed composition in a large set of natural surface-water samples, Queensland, Australia. Environ Geol 39:1325–1333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mortula M, Shabani S (2012) Removal of TDS and BOD from synthetic industrial wastewater via adsorption. In: 2012 International conference on environmental, biomedical and biotechnology. IACSIT Press, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Breuel U, Werner B, Jehnert D (2009) Metrology in chemistry for pH and electrolytic conductivity traceability dissemination. Chimia 63:643–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kim JH (ed) (2007) Study on the characteristics of municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plant effluent for reuse as industrial water. In: Korean water and environment society conference. KINTEX, KoreaGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lim S, Kim S, Yeon K-M, Sang B-I, Jongsik C, Lee C-H (2012) Correlation between microbial community structure and biofouling in a laboratory scale membrane bioreactor with synthetic wastewater. Desalination 287:209–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tsang YF, Sin SN, Chua H (2008) Nocardia foaming control in activated sludge process treating domestic wastewater. Bioresour Technol 99:3381–3388CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nopens I, Capalozza C, Vanrolleghem PA (2001) Stability analysis of a synthetic municipal wastewater. Department of Applied Mathematics BaPC, Universiteit Gent, GentGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Brinkmann F, Dam NE, Deák E, Durbiano F, Ferrara E, Fükö J, Jensen HD, Máriássy M, Shreiner RH, Spitzer P, Sudmeirer U, Surdu M, Vyskočil L (2003) Primary methods for the measurement of electrolytic conductivity. Accred Qual Assur 8:346–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Krismastuti FSH, Sujarwo S, Hindayani A, Hamim N (2018) Competency evaluation on electrolytic conductivity measurement in Indonesia by an unofficial bilateral comparison between RCChem-LIPI and NIMT. Accred Qual Assur 24:119–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shreiner RH, Pratt KW (2004) Primary standards and standard reference materials for electrolytic conductivity. Natl Inst Stand Technol Spec Publ 260–142:1–31Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jameel RH, Wu YC, Pratt KW (2000) Primary standards and standard reference materials for electrolytic conductivity. US Government Printing Office, WashingtonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fransiska Sri Herwahyu Krismastuti
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nuryatini Hamim
    • 2
  1. 1.Research Centre for Chemistry – Indonesian Institute of SciencesTangerang SelatanIndonesia
  2. 2.National Standardization Agency of IndonesiaTangerang SelatanIndonesia

Personalised recommendations