Validation of the quantification of natural radionuclides in raw materials and by-products using gamma-ray spectrometry
- 110 Downloads
The validation of a method for the indirect quantification for 238U, 226Ra, and 232Th activity and the direct quantification for 40K activity using gamma-ray spectrometry was performed in view of consistency, reliability, and accuracy of the results. The gas tightness of Al containers used to confine the radon gas was verified from the establishment of the secular equilibrium between 226Ra and its indicator. To evaluate validation parameters such as linearity, range, and accuracy, it was important to verify the equilibrium state of the reference materials (RM) for U and Th, because the ingrowth of progenies in the uranium decay series can affect the quantification of 226Ra activity even if based on a certified reference material (CRM), while the ingrowth of 228Ra from the thorium decay series should be secured in order to use 228Ac as an indicator of 232Th. In addition, the ruggedness of the method regarding different materials was checked using two kinds of CRM, namely bauxite as an example of a raw material and coal fly ash as a by-product.
KeywordsValidation Gamma-ray spectrometry Natural radionuclides Raw materials By-products
This work was supported by a grant from “Establishment of Technical Basis for Implementation on Safety Management for Radiation in the Natural Environment” carried out by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety.
- 3.Bandong BB, Kreek SA, Bazn JM, Torretto PC, Dixon JA, Edwards WL, Guthrie EB, Ruth MA, Zaka FA, Hall HL (2005) Validation of a gamma-spectrometric method for the measurement of 226,228Ra in environmental media relevant to the offshore oil and gas industry. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 264(2):429–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 5.ISO IEC17025:2005 (2005) General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. International Organization for Standardization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- 6.IAEA (2011) ALMERA proficiency test: determination of natural and artificial radionuclides in soil and water, IAEA analytical quality in nuclear applications series, No. 32, IAEA/AQ/32 (www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/IAEA-AQ-32_web.pdf)Google Scholar
- 7.Canberra (2006) Genie2000 Operations Manual, Ver. 3.1Google Scholar
- 9.ORTEC (2003) GammaVision-32 software user’s manual, Ver. 6Google Scholar
- 13.BIPM (2006) Table of Radionuclides, Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, Monographie BIPM-5Google Scholar
- 14.De Corte F, Umans H, Vandenberghe D, De Wispelaere A, Van den Haute P (2005) Direct gamma-spectrometric measurement of the 226Ra 186.2 keV line for detecting 238U/226Ra disequilibrium in determining the environmental dose rate for the luminescence dating of sediments. Appl Radiat Isot 63:589–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar