, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 19–29 | Cite as

Hydraulic conductivity profiling with direct push methods

  • Gaisheng Liu
  • James J. ButlerJr.Email author
  • Edward Reboulet
  • Steven Knobbe


Spatial variations in hydraulic conductivity (K) are a primary control on contaminant movement in groundwater, but characterization of these variations has proven difficult. Over the last two decades, significant progress has been made in utilizing Direct Push (DP) technology to characterize K variations in unconsolidated settings. Profiling methods have been developed based on empirical correlations between K and more readily evaluated formation properties and on the formation response to water injection or extraction. The latter (hydraulic) methods appear to have the most potential. Initial work on these methods involved adaptation of conventional well tests, but recent efforts have better exploited DP capabilities. The High-Resolution K and continuous Direct Push Injection Logger (DPIL) methods are the most promising approaches. Both provide high-resolution (0.015 m) K profiles, although the DPIL profile is only qualitative in nature. Currently, the K range of both is approximately 0.001 to 60 m/d, but that range should increase in the near future.


Hydraulic conductivity Direct Push, High resolution profiling Site characterization 

Bestimmung von Vertikalprofilen der hydraulischen Durchlässigkeit mit Direct Push-Methoden


Die räumliche Verteilung der hydraulischen Durchlässigkeit (K) bestimmt maßgeblich den Schadstofftransport im Grundwasser, lässt sich aber durch Messungen nur schwer erfassen. In den letzten zwei Jahrzehnten gab es jedoch mit dem Einsatz von Direct Push (DP) deutliche Fortschritte, um Verteilungen von K in unverfestigten Sedimenten zu ermitteln. So wurden Methoden zu ihrer Erfassung entwickelt, die auf empirischen Beziehungen zwischen K und einfach zu ermittelnden Untergrundeigenschaften beruhen und solche, für die Wasserinjektions- oder Extraktionsversuche genutzt werden, wobei letztere am erfolgversprechendsten sind. Ursprüngliche Ansätze beruhen dabei auf der Durchführung von konventionellen Versuchen mit DP-Ausrüstung. Neuere Entwicklungen erlauben es aber, die Möglichkeiten von DP besser auszunutzen, von denen das ,,High Resolution K“ und kontinuierliche ,,DP Injection Logging“ dabei die am erfolgversprechendsten sind. Beide Methoden erlauben hochauflösend K-Profile (0,015 m) in einem Anwendungsbereich zwischen ca. 0,001 und 60 m/d zu ermitteln. Zukünftig ist zu erwarten, dass dieser Bereich mit neuen Geräteentwicklungen und Verfahren sich erweitern wird.



Portions of the work reported here were supported by the Hydrologic Sciences Program of the U.S. National Science Foundation (grant EAR-0738955) and the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science (award DE-SC0004623). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of NSF or DoE. This paper greatly benefited from comments provided by two anonymous reviewers.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gaisheng Liu
    • 1
  • James J. ButlerJr.
    • 1
    Email author
  • Edward Reboulet
    • 1
  • Steven Knobbe
    • 1
  1. 1.Kansas Geological SurveyUniversity of KansasLawrenceUSA

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