Requirements Engineering

, Volume 22, Issue 1, pp 137–165 | Cite as

Mapping quality requirements for pervasive mobile games

  • Luis Valente
  • Bruno Feijó
  • Julio Cesar Sampaio do Prado Leite
Original Article


Games have not received the full attention of the requirements engineering community. This scenario is becoming more critical as we move towards newer forms of games, such as pervasive games. Pervasiveness (the quality that distinguishes pervasive games from traditional digital games) holds several meanings, including being ubiquitous, permeating something, or spreading something, somewhere, in a physical space. Pervasiveness can be recognized in by the boundaries of the game expanding every time it is played, from the virtual (or fictional) world to the real world. Pervasive games are a new form of digital entertainment that has evolved in different forms, such as alternate reality games, transmedia games, and crossmedia games. Sensor technologies, networking capabilities, augmented reality systems, computer vision technology, the internet, and, especially, mobile devices have been responsible for the rapid evolution of this new form of digital product. This paper is focused on “pervasive mobile games”, which we define as context-aware games that use mobile devices. We bear in mind that mobile devices are currently the main driver for fulfilling the promises of pervasive game playing. Our investigations and experiments on this class of games led us to study the quality requirements for pervasive mobile games. Using different information sources, we gathered a set of interrelated characteristics that are crucial to the success of these games. In this paper, we begin to clarify the definition and scope of pervasive mobile games, which are controversial issues in the literature. Using these fundamentals, we propose a two-level conceptual map of non-functional requirements that helps to realize pervasiveness in pervasive mobile games. These non-functional requirements are then associated with a set of questions that help the designers in verifying tasks and operationalizing the requirements of a game. We also propose a dependence matrix for pervasive game qualities that enhances the insight into pervasiveness and reveals important guidelines for the game designers.


Pervasive mobile games Requirements engineering Non-functional requirements Dependence matrix 



The authors thank CNPq, FAPERJ, FINEP, and CAPES for the financial support to this paper.


  1. 1.
    Gartner (2013) Gartner says worldwide video game market to total $93 Billion in 2013.
  2. 2.
    Callele D, Neufeld E, Schneider K (2011) A report on select research opportunities in requirements engineering for videogame development. In: 2011 Fourth international workshop on multimedia and enjoyable requirements engineering—beyond mere descriptions and with more fun and games (MERE), pp 26–33Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Callele D, Neufeld E, Schneider K (2005) Requirements engineering and the creative process in the video game industry. In: Proceedings on 13th IEEE international conference on requirements engineering, 2005, pp 240–250Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alves C, Ramalho G, Damasceno A (2007) Challenges in requirements engineering for mobile games development: the meantime case study. In: 15th IEEE international requirements engineering conference, 2007. RE’07. pp 275–280Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Furtado AWB, Santos ALM, Ramalho GL (2010) Streamlining domain analysis for digital games product lines. In: Bosch J, Lee J (eds) Software product lines: going beyond. Springer, Berlin, pp 316–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Norneby J, Olsson T A new attitude to game engineering: embrace change, re-use, fun.
  7. 7.
    Björk S, Falk J, Hansson R, Ljungstrand P (2001) Pirates! Using the physical world as a game board. In: Proceedings of interact 2001, IOS Press, pp 9–13Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schneider J, Kortuem G (2001) How to host a pervasive game—supporting face-to-face interactions in live-action roleplaying. In: Interactions in live-action roleplaying. UbiComp workshop on Designing Ubiquitous Computing GamesGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sotamaa O (2002) All the world’s a Botfighter stage: notes on location-based multi-user gaming. In: Frans M (ed) Computer games and digital cultures conference proceedings, Tampere University Press, Tampere, p 10Google Scholar
  10. 10.
  11. 11.
    YD Online: GEO Hunters for iPhone, iPod touch, and iPad on the iTunes App Store.
  12. 12.
    Petrillo F, Pimenta M, Trindade F, Dietrich C (2009) What went wrong? A survey of problems in game development. ACM Comput Entertain 7:13:1–13:22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kanode CM, Haddad HM (2009) Software engineering challenges in game development. In: Sixth international conference on information technology: new generations, 2009. ITNG’09, pp 260–265Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bentley T, Johnston L, von Baggo K (2002) Putting some emotion into requirements engineering. In: Proceedings of the 7th Australian workshop on requirements engineeringGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Callele D, Neufeld E, Schneider K (2010) An introduction to experience requirements. In: 18th IEEE international requirements engineering conference (RE), 2010, pp 395–396Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Potts C (1995) Invented requirements and imagined customers: requirements engineering for off-the-shelf software. In: Proceedings of the second IEEE international symposium on requirements engineering, pp 128–130Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Poels K, de Kort Y, Ijsselsteijn W (2007) “It is always a lot of fun!”: exploring dimensions of digital game experience using focus group methodology. In: Proceedings of the 2007 conference on future play. ACM, New York, NY, pp 83–89Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Arango GF (1988) Domain engineering for software reuse. PhD Thesis, University of California, IrvineGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Glinz M (2007) On non-functional requirements. In: 15th IEEE international requirements engineering conference, 2007. RE’07, pp 21–26Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kazman R, Abowd G, Bass L, Clements P (1996) Scenario-based analysis of software architecture. IEEE Softw 13:47–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Freeman P (1987) Software perspectives: the system is the message. Addison-Wesley Longman Publishing Co. Inc, BostonGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Oxford English Dictionary (2015) Pervasive, adj.
  23. 23.
    Salen K, Zimmerman E (2004) Rules of play: game design fundamentals. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Montola M, Stenros J, Wærn A (2009) Pervasive games: theory and design. Morgan Kaufmann, BurlingtonGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nieuwdorp E (2007) The pervasive discourse: an analysis. Comput Entertain CIE 5(2):13. doi: 10.1145/1279540.1279553 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Montola M, Waern A, Nieuwdorp E (2006) Domain of pervasive gaming. IPerGGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Davies H (2007) Place as media in pervasive games. In: Porceedings of fourth Australasian conference on interactive entertainment, pp 7:1–7:4Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Magerkurth C, Cheok AD, Mandryk RL, Nilsen T (2005) Pervasive games: bringing computer entertainment back to the real world. Comput Entertain CIE 3:4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Saarenpää H, Korhonen H, Paavilainen J (2009) Asynchronous gameplay in pervasive multiplayer mobile games. In: Proceedings of 27th international conference on extended abstracts on human factors in computing systems, pp 4213–4218Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    McGonigal J (2006) This might be a game: ubiquitous play and performance at the turn of the twenty-first century. PhD Thesis, University of California, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Linner D, Kirsch F, Radusch I, Steglich S (2005) Context-aware multimedia provisioning for pervasive games. In: International symposium on multimedia, IEEE computer society, Los Alamitos, CA, pp 60–68Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Capra M, Radenkovic M, Benford S, Oppermann L, Drozd A, Flintham M (2005) The multimedia challenges raised by pervasive games. In: Proceedings of 13th annual ACM international conference on multimedia, pp 89–95Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Walther B (2005) Notes on the methodology of pervasive gaming. In: Kishino F, Kitamura Y, Kato H, Nagata N (eds) Entertainment computing—ICEC 2005. Springer, Berlin, pp 488–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hinske S, Lampe M, Magerkurth C, Röcker C (2007) Classifying pervasive games: on pervasive computing and mixed reality. Concepts Technol Pervasive Games Read Pervasive Gaming Res 1:11–38Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Benford S, Magerkurth C, Ljungstrand P (2005) Bridging the physical and digital in pervasive gaming. Communications of the ACM, vol 48, pp 54–57Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Milgram P, Takemura H, Utsumi A, Kishino F (1994) Augmented reality: a class of displays on the reality-virtuality continuum. Syst Res 2351:282–292Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    McGonigal J (2003) A real little game: the pinocchio effect in pervasive play. In: Marinka C, Joost R (eds) Level up conference proceedings: proceedings of the 2003 digital games research association conference. CD ROM. University of Utrecht, UtrechtGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Weiser M (1991) The computer for the 21st century. Sci Am 265:66–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    IBM Research: The convenience of small devices: how pervasive computing will personalize e-business.
  40. 40.
    Dey AK (2001) Understanding and using context. Pers Ubiquitous Comput 5:4–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Leite JCSP, de Moraes EA, de Castro CEPS (2007) A strategy for information source identification. In: Anais do WER07—workshop em Engenharia de Requisitos, Toronto, pp 25–34Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    IPerG: Integrated Project of Pervasive Games.
  43. 43.
    Valente L, Feijó B (2013) A survey on pervasive mobile games. Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio, Rio de JaneiroGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lindt I, Ohlenburg J, Pankoke-Babatz U, Ghellal S (2007) A report on the crossmedia game epidemic menace. Comput Entertain CIE 5(1):8. doi: 10.1145/1236224.1236237 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lindt I, Ohlenburg J, Pankoke-Babatz U, Ghellal S, Oppermann L, Adams M (2005) Designing cross media games. In: Proceedings of 2nd international workshop on pervasive gaming applications, Munich, pp 8–13Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Benford S, Crabtree A, Flintham M, Drozd A, Anastasi R, Paxton M, Tandavanitj N, Adams M, Row-Farr J (2006) Can you see me now? ACM Trans Comput Hum Interact TOCHI 13:100–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Joffe B (2007) Mogi. In: Borries F, Walz SP, Böttger M (eds) Space time play. Birkhäuser Basel, pp 224–225Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Peitz J, Saarenpää H, Björk S (2007) Insectopia: exploring pervasive games through technology already pervasively available. In: Proceedings of the international conference on advances in computer entertainment technology, ACM, New York, NY, pp 107–114Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Benford S, Flintham M, Drozd A, Anastasi R, Adams M, Row-Farr J, Oldroyd A, Sutton J, Park A (2004) Uncle roy all around you: implicating the city in a location-based performance. In: ACE04. ACM PressGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Rashid O, Bamford W, Coulton P, Edwards R, Scheible J (2006) PAC-LAN: mixed-reality gaming with RFID-enabled mobile phones. Comput Entertain CIE 4(4):4. doi: 10.1145/1178418.1178425 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bartneck C, Hu J, Salem B, Cristescu R, Rauterberg M (2008) Applying virtual and augmented reality in cultural computing. IJVR 7:11–18Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Tuulos V, Scheible J, Nyholm H (2007) Combining web, mobile phones and public displays in large-scale: manhattan story mashup. In: LaMarca A, Langheinrich M, Truong K (eds) Pervasive Computing. Springer, Berlin, pp 37–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Chatzigiannakis I, Mylonas G, Kokkinos P, Akribopoulos O, Logaras M, Mavrommati I (2011) Implementing multiplayer pervasive installations based on mobile sensing devices: field experience and user evaluation from a public showcase. J Syst Softw 84:1989–2004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
  55. 55.
    Mottola L, Murphy AL, Picco GP (2006) Pervasive games in a mote-enabled virtual world using tuple space middleware. In: Proceedings of 5th ACM SIGCOMM workshop on network and system support for games. ACM, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Flintham M (2003) Uncle Roy all around you: mixing games and theatre on the city streets. In: Copier M, Raessens J (eds) Proceedings level up the first international conference of the digital games research association DIGRA, pp 168–177. University of Utrecht and Digital Games Research AssociationGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Lyytinen K, Yoo Y (2002) Issues and challenges in ubiquitous computing. Commun ACM 45:62–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gigantic Mechanic: Gigaputt∷ Make the world your golf course!
  59. 59.
    Ballagas R, Walz SP (2007) REXplorer: using player-centered iterative design techniques for pervasive game development. In: Magerkurth C, Roecker C (eds) Pervasive gaming applications—a reader for pervasive gaming research, vol 2. Shaker, Aachen, pp 255–284Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Soute I, Markopoulos P, Magielse R (2009) Head up games: combining the best of both worlds by merging traditional and digital play. Pers Ubiquitous Comput 14:435–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Bell M, Chalmers M, Barkhuus L, Hall M, Sherwood S, Tennent P, Brown B, Rowland D, Benford S, Capra M, Hampshire A (2006) Interweaving mobile games with everyday life. In: Proceedings of SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems, pp 417–426Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ekman I, Ermi L, Lahti J, Nummela J, Lankoski P, Mäyrä F (2005) Designing sound for a pervasive mobile game. In: Proceedings of the 2005 ACM SIGCHI international conference on advances in computer entertainment technology, pp 110–116Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Coenen T, Mostmans L, Naessens K (2013) MuseUs: case study of a pervasive cultural heritage serious game. J Comput Cult Herit 6:8:1–8:19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Dixon D, Kiani SL, Ikram A (2013) Experiences with AR plots: design issues and recommendations for augmented reality based mobile games. Commun Mob Comput 2:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Valente L, de Souza CS, Feijó B (2008) An exploratory study on non-visual mobile phone interfaces for games. In: Proceedings of the VIII Brazilian symposium on human factors in computing systems. Sociedade Brasileira de Computação, Porto Alegre, Brazil, pp 31–39Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Valente L, Souza CSD, Feijó B (2009) Turn off the graphics: designing non-visual interfaces for mobile phone games. J Braz Comput Soc 15:45–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Schmitz M, Moniri MM (2009) Burgomaster and Pedro—a pervasive multi-player game for rural tourism. In: Games and virtual worlds for serious applications, 2009. Conference in VS-GAMES’09, pp 205–208Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Jegers K (2008) Investigating the applicability of usability and playability heuristics for evaluation of pervasive games. In: Third international conference on internet and web applications and services, 2008. ICIW’08, pp 656–661Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Koivisto E, Eladhari M (2006) User evaluation of a pervasive mmorpg concept. In: DIME conference, Bangkok, ThailandGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Martins T, Romão T, Sommerer C, Mignonneau L, Correia N (2008) Towards an interface for untethered ubiquitous gaming. In: Proceedings of the 2008 international conference on advances in computer entertainment technology. ACM, New York, NY, pp 26–33Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Vogiazou Y, Reid J, Raijmakers B, Eisenstadt M (2006) A research process for designing ubiquitous social experiences. In: Proceedings of the 4th Nordic conference on human-computer interaction: changing roles. ACM, New York, NY, pp 86–95Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Reid J (2008) Design for coincidence: incorporating real world artifacts in location based games. In: Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on digital interactive media in entertainment and arts, ACM, New York, NY, pp 18–25Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ishii H, Ullmer B (1997) Tangible bits: towards seamless interfaces between people, bits and atoms. In: Proceedings on SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems, pp 234–241Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Waern A, Montola M, Stenros J (2009) The three-sixty illusion: designing for immersion in pervasive games. In: Proceedings 27th international conference on human factors in computing systems, pp 1549–1558 (2009)Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Ballagas R, Kratz SG, Borchers J, Yu E, Walz SP, Fuhr CO, Hovestadt L, Tann M (2007) REXplorer: a mobile, pervasive spell-casting game for tourists. CHI 07 Ext Abstr Hum Factors Comput Syst pp 1929–1934Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Drozd A, Benford S, Tandavanitj N, Wright M, Chamberlain A (2006) Hitchers: designing for cellular positioning. In: Dourish P, Friday A (eds) UbiComp 2006: ubiquitous computing. Springer, Berlin, pp 279–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Cunha H, Sampaio do Prado Leite JC, Duboc L, Werneck V (2013) The challenges of representing transparency as patterns. In: 2013 IEEE third international workshop on requirements patterns (RePa), pp 25–30Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Chung L, Nixon BA, Yu E, Mylopoulos J (1999) Non-functional requirements in software engineering. Springer, BerlinzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Baldwin CY, Clark KB (2000) Design rules vol 1: the power of modularity. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Lindemann U design structure matrix (DSM).
  81. 81.
    Valente L (2011) A methodology for conceptual design of pervasive games. PhD Thesis, PUC-RioGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Boehm BW, Brown JR, Kaspar H (1978) Characteristics of software quality. North-Holland, AmsterdamzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Barbacci M, Klein MH, Longstaff TA, Weinstock CB (1995) Quality attributes. Carnegie-Mellon University, Software Engineering Institute, PittsburghGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Simon HA (1996) The sciences of the artificial, 3rd edn. The MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Giorgini P, Mylopoulos J, Nicchiarelli E, Sebastiani R (2002) Reasoning with goal models. In: Spaccapietra S, March ST, Kambayashi Y (eds) Conceptual modeling—ER 2002. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 167–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Serrano M, Leite JCSP (2011) Capturing transparency-related requirements patterns through argumentation. In: 2011 first international workshop on requirements patterns (RePa), pp 32–41Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Browning TR (2001) Applying the design structure matrix to system decomposition and integration problems: a review and new directions. IEEE Trans Eng Manag 48:292–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    MacCormack A, Rusnak J, Baldwin CY (2006) Exploring the structure of complex software designs: an empirical study of open source and proprietary code. Manag Sci 52:1015–1030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Lopes CV, Bajracharya SK (2006) Assessing Aspect Modularizations Using Design Structure Matrix and Net Option Value. In: Rashid A, Aksit M (eds) Transactions on Aspect-Oriented Software Development I. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 1–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Matos PJ, Duarte R, Cardim I, Borba P (2007) Using design structure matrices to assess modularity in aspect-oriented software product lines. In: Proceedings of the first international workshop on assessment of contemporary modularization techniques. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA, p 4Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Chung L, Leite JCSDP (2009) On non-functional requirements in software engineering. In: Borgida AT, Chaudhri VK, Giorgini P, Yu ES (eds) Conceptual modeling: foundations and applications. Springer, Berlin, pp 363–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Leite JCSDP, Cappelli C (2010) Software transparency. Bus Inf Syst Eng 2:127–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luis Valente
    • 1
    • 2
  • Bruno Feijó
    • 2
  • Julio Cesar Sampaio do Prado Leite
    • 3
  1. 1.MediaLab/Institute of ComputingUFF, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de SouzaNiteróiBrazil
  2. 2.VisionLab/Department of InformaticsPUC-RioRio de JaneiroBrazil
  3. 3.Department of InformaticsPUC-RioRio de JaneiroBrazil

Personalised recommendations