Requirements Engineering

, Volume 9, Issue 2, pp 85–103 | Cite as

Goal-driven requirements analysis for hypermedia-intensive Web applications

  • Davide Bolchini
  • Paolo Paolini
Original Article


Requirements analysis for Web applications still needs to employ effective RE practices to accommodate some distinctive aspects: capturing high-level communication goals, considering several user profiles, defining hypermedia-specific requirements, bridging the gap between requirements and Web design, and reusing requirements for an effective usability evaluation. Techniques should be usable, informal, require little training effort, and show relative advantage to project managers. On the basis of the i * framework, this paper presents a proposal for defining hypermedia requirements (concerning aspects such as content, interaction, navigation, and presentation) for Web applications. The model adopts a goal-driven approach coupled with scenario-based techniques, introduces a hypermedia requirement taxonomy to facilitate Web conceptual design, and paves the way for systematic usability evaluation. Particular attention is paid to the empirical validation of the model based on the perceived quality attributes theory. A case study developed with industrial partners is discussed.


Goal-based analysis Hypermedia design Hypermedia requirements Usability evaluation Web applications 



The authors are grateful to all partners of the UWA consortium, especially to the research group of Anthony Finkelstein at the University College London (UCL) for the contribution to the definition of a goal-driven requirements methodology within the UWA project, and to Lorenzo Cantoni at the University of Lugano for his essential contribution to the evaluation of the methodology. A special thank to John Mylopoulos for his insightful support and suggestions that stimulated the development of this work during the visit of Davide Bolchini at the University of Toronto. We also thank Annie Antón, Qingfeng He, and William Stufflebeam at North Carolina State University for their collaboration while Davide Bolchini was visiting. Both visits were funded by a grant for prospective researchers of the Swiss National Fund (FNSRS). A special thank to Julio Leite and William Stufflebeam for reviewing and commenting on the manuscript. We also thank the Requirements Engineering reviewers for their useful comments that helped enhance the quality of this work.


  1. 1.
    Baresi L, Garzotto F, Paolini P (2000) From Web sites to Web applications: new issues for conceptual modeling. In: Proc of international conference on conceptual modeling ER’00, Salt Lake City, USA, 2000Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Castro J, Kolp M, Mylopoulos J (2002) Towards requirements-driven information systems engineering: the TROPOS project. Inform Syst 27:365–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Van Der Geest T (2001) Web site design is communication design. Benjamins, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cantoni L, Paolini P (2001) Hypermedia analysis. Some insights from semiotics and ancient rhetoric. Stud Commun Sci 1:33–53Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lowe DB, Eklund J (2002) Client needs and the design process in Web projects. J Web Eng 1:23–36Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bolchini D, Randazzo G, Paolini P (2003) Adding hypermedia requirements to goal-driven analysis. In: Proc 11th IEEE international conference on requirements engineering RE03, Monterey, USA, 2003Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yu E (1993) Modeling organizations for information systems requirements engineering. In: Proc 1st international symposium on requirements engineering, RE’93, San Jose, USA, 1993Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dardenne A, van Lamsweerde A, Fickas S (1993) Goal-directed requirements acquisition. Sci Comput Program 20:3–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Antón A (1997) Goal identification and refinement in the specification of software-based information systems. Dissertation, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, USAGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Carroll JM (2002) Making use. Scenario-based design of human-computer interactions. MIT Press, Cambridge, USAGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nielsen J, Mack RL (eds) (1994) Usability inspection methods. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jarke M, Bui TX, Carroll JM (1998) Scenario management: an interdisciplinary approach. Req Eng 3:155–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ceri S, Fraternali P, Bangio A, et al. (2002) Designing data-intensive Web applications. Morgan Kaufmann, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Garzotto F, Mainetti L, Paolini P (1996) Navigation in hypermedia applications: modeling and semantics. J Organ Comput 6:74–86Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Güell N, Schwabe D, Vilain P (2000) Modeling interactions and navigation in Web applications. In: Proc of international conference on conceptual modeling ER’00, Salt Lake City, USA, 2000Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    UWA Consortium (2001) Hypermedia and operation design: model, notation, and tool architecture. UWA project IST-2000-25131, deliverable D7 (public), Cited December 2001
  17. 17.
    De Troyer O, Leune C (1997) WSDM: a user-centered design method for Web sites. In: Proc 7th International World Wide Web conference, Brisbane, 1997Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gomez J, Cachero C, Pastor O (2001) On conceptual modeling of device-independent Web applications: towards a Web engineering approach. IEEE Multimedia 2(8):26–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Koch N, Kraus A, Canchero C, et al. (2003) Modeling Web business processes with OO-H and UWE. In: Proc 3rd int workshop on Web-oriented software technology (IWWOST’03), Oviedo, Spain, July 2003Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Garrett JJ (2002) The elements of the user experience. New Riders, Indianapolis, USAGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Moisiadis F (2002) The fundamentals of prioritising requirements. In: Proc system engineering, test & evaluation conference, Sidney, Australia, October 2002Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bolchini D, Paolini P (2002) Capturing Web application requirements through goal-oriented analysis. In: Proc of 5th workshop on requirements engineering, Valencia, 2002Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Paolini P, Garzotto F, Bolchini D, Valenti S (1999) Modelling by pattern of Web applications. In: Proc international conference on conceptual modeling ER’99 workshops, Paris, 1999Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    UWA Consortium (2001) Transaction Design: Model, Notation, and Tool Architecture. UWA project IST-2000-25131, deliverable D8 (public), Cited December 2001
  25. 25.
    Akao Y (ed) (1990) Quality function deployment: integrating customer requirements into product design. Productivity, Cambridge, USAGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Maiden NAM, Pavan P, Gizikis A, Clause O, Kim H, Zhu X (2002) Integrating decision-making techniques into requirements engineering. In: Proc. of 8th international workshop on requirements engineering: foundation for software quality (REFSQ’02), Essen, Germany, 9–10 September 2002Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chung L, Nixon B, Yu E et al. (2000) Non-functional requirements in software engineering. Kluwer Academic, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Alexander JE, Tate MA (1999) Web wisdom: how to evaluate and create information quality on the Web. Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, USAGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    UWA Consortium (2002) Requirements and design specification for Banca121 pilot application (produced with UWA tools). UWA project IST-2000-25131, deliverable D22 (public), Cited September 2002
  30. 30.
    UWA Consortium (2002) Requirements and design specification for Punto Commercial pilot application (produced with UWA tools). UWA project IST-2000-25131, deliverable D23 (public), Cited December 2002
  31. 31.
    Matera M, Costabile F, Garzotto F, Paolini P (2002) SUE inspection: an effective method for systematic usability evaluation of hypermedia. IEEE T Syst Man Cy A 32:93–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bolchini D, Triacca L, Speroni M (2003) MiLE: a reuse-oriented usability evaluation method for the Web. Proc HCII 2003 international conference on human–computer interaction, Crete, Greece, 2003Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    UWA Consortium (2002) Methods and tools for requirements elicitation. UWA project IST-2000-25131, deliverable D6 (public), Cited January 2002
  34. 34.
    UWA Consortium (2002) Evaluation of UWA design methods. UWA project IST-2000-25131, deliverable D13 (public), Cited October 2002
  35. 35.
    Rogers EM (1995) Diffusion of innovations, 4th edn. Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kaindl H, Brinkkemper S, Bubenko JA et al. (2002) Requirements engineering and technology transfer: obstacles, incentives and improvement agenda. Req Eng 7:113–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Davis A (2003) The art of requirements triage. IEEE Comput 36:42–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Tec Lab, Faculty of Communication SciencesUniversity of LuganoLugano TISwitzerland
  2. 2.Hypermedia Open Centre, Department of Electronics and InformaticsPolitecnico di MilanoMilanoItaly

Personalised recommendations