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Der Onkologe

, Volume 24, Issue 12, pp 958–966 | Cite as

Nichtkleinzelliges Lungenkarzinom – Pathologie und Biologie

  • Maike WittersheimEmail author
  • S. Schallenberg
  • R. Büttner
Leitthema

Zusammenfassung

Hintergrund

Nichtkleinzellige Lungenkarzinome (NSCLC) machen ca. 75 % der malignen epithelialen Lungentumoren aus. In den vergangenen Jahren konnten profunde Erkenntnisse über molekulare Mechanismen der Krebsentstehung der Lunge gewonnen werden und in der Folge zielgerichtete Substanzen („targeted drugs“) und immuntherapeutisch wirksame Medikamente entwickelt werden. Diese Fortschritte haben den Ablauf der pathologischen Diagnostik maßgeblich beeinflusst.

Ziel

Der vorliegende Artikel soll einen Überblick über die häufigsten histologischen Subtypen der NSCLC, ihre morphologischen, immunhistochemischen und molekularpathologischen Charakteristika geben.

Material und Methoden

Eine selektive Literaturrecherche der Datenbank Pubmed wurde durchgeführt.

Ergebnisse und Diskussion

Adenokarzinome, Plattenepithelkarzinome und großzellige Karzinome sind die häufigsten histologischen Subtypen. Durch die in der pathologischen Routine verfügbaren Zusatzuntersuchungen lassen sich in der Regel auch gering differenzierte Tumoren gut zuordnen. NSCLC zeigen eine Reihe genetischer Veränderungen, therapeutisch nutzbar sind Alterationen von EGFR, MET, ALK1 und ROS1.

Schlüsselwörter

Lungenkrebs Adenokarzinome  Histopathologie Immunhistochemie Molekularpathologie 

Non-small cell lung cancer—pathology and biology

Abstract

Background

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for ca. 75% of malignant epithelial neoplasms of the lungs. In recent years profound insight has been gained regarding the molecular mechanisms of lung carcinogenesis and subsequently new targeted therapies as well as immunotherapies have been developed. These advances have had a significant impact on routine diagnostics in pathology.

Objective

The article aims to give an overview of the most common histological subtypes of NSCLC as well as the morphological, immunohistochemical and molecular characteristics.

Material and methods

Selective search of the PubMed database.

Results and discussion

Adenocarcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas and large cell carcinomas are the most common histological subtypes. With the ancillary methods available in routine pathology even poorly differentiated tumors can be assigned to these entities. The NSCLC show numerous genetic changes of which alterations of EGFR, MET, ALK1 and ROS1 are target structures for personalized therapy.

Keywords

Lung cancer Adenocarcinomas Histopathology Immunohistochemistry Molecular pathology 

Notes

Einhaltung ethischer Richtlinien

Interessenkonflikt

M. Wittersheim, S. Schallenberg und R. Büttner geben an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht.

Dieser Beitrag beinhaltet keine von den Autoren durchgeführten Studien an Menschen oder Tieren.

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Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag GmbH, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maike Wittersheim
    • 1
    Email author
  • S. Schallenberg
    • 1
  • R. Büttner
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für PathologieUniklinik KölnKölnDeutschland

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