Archives of Women's Mental Health

, Volume 22, Issue 6, pp 751–758 | Cite as

Prevalence of intimate partner violence victimization and its association with mental disorders in the Korean general population

  • Ji Hyun An
  • Carolyn Seungyoun Moon
  • Da Eun Kim
  • Su Yeon Lee-Tauler
  • Hong Jin Jeon
  • Seong Jin Cho
  • Su Jeong Sung
  • Jin Pyo HongEmail author
Original Article


This study assessed the association between experiencing physical or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health among women in the general Korean population. A total of 3160 South Korean women aged 18 to 74 responded to the Korean version of the WHO-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (K-CIDI), version 2.1., and questions about IPV. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the odds of developing mental disorders associated with each type of IPV. Victimization by any type of IPV was associated with significantly increased odds of experiencing any mental disorders in the lifetime (OR 4.4, 95% CI 2.4–8.0). Participants who experienced sexual IPV had the highest odds of having mental disorders (OR 14.3, 95% CI 4.1–54.8). Sexual IPV experience among participants was associated with higher odds of major depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobias, agoraphobia, and nicotine dependence. Alcohol use disorder was highly associated with experiencing physical IPV (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.7–8.0). Among women who experienced IPV, the youngest age group, from 18 to 35 years old (2.6%, 95% CI 1.4–3.8), and the never married group (2.7%, 95% CI 1.2–4.2) experienced the highest proportion of any form of IPV. Mental disorders throughout the lifetime are highly associated with the experience of IPV among women and are most prevalent among those who experienced sexual IPV. Thus, to prevent mental disorders among female IPV victims, treatment specific to each type of IPV should be provided early.


Violence Women Mental health Mental disorders 



Intimate partner violence


Korean version of the WHO-Composite International Diagnostic Interview


Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition


Adjusted odds ratio


Major depressive disorder


Obsessive-compulsive disorder


Generalized anxiety disorder


Post-traumatic stress disorder



We would like to acknowledge the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Republic of Korea, for their support of data collection.

Authors’ contributions

JHA and CSM participated in the study design, conception, data acquisition and data analysis, wrote the first manuscript drafting, and revised new drafts from co-authors. DEK participated in data analysis and acquisition of data. SYL participated in the design and conceptualized the study and revising of the manuscript. HJJ, SJC, and SJS were in charge of developing the questionnaire, directed the data acquisition, and participated in the study design and conceptualization. JPH participated in study design and conception, data acquisition, manuscript drafting, and funding acquisition. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.


This work was supported by the Korea Healthcare Technology R&D project, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Republic of Korea (HM15C1072, HL19C0018).

Compliance with ethical standards

Written informed consent was obtained from all participants before presenting questionnaires and performing face-to-face interviews. This study was conducted with the approval of the institutional review board of the Samsung Seoul Hospital Clinical Research Committee (IRB No. 2016-05-014).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


  1. Amar AF, Gennaro S (2005) Dating violence in college women: associated physical injury, healthcare usage, and mental health symptoms. Nurs Res 54(4):235–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Banyard VL, Cross C (2008) Consequences of teen dating violence: understanding intervening variables in ecological context. Violence Against Women 14(9):998–1013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bonomi AE, Anderson ML, Nemeth J, Bartle-Haring S, Buettner C, Schipper D (2012) Dating violence victimization across the teen years: abuse frequency, number of abusive partners, and age at first occurrence. BMC Public Health 12(1):637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boon S, Steele K, Van Der Hart O (2011) Coping with trauma-related dissociation: skills training for patients and therapists. WW Norton & Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Campbell JC (2002) Health consequences of intimate partner violence. Lancet 359(9314):1331–1336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2000a) Extent, nature, and consequences of intimate partner violence. Accessed 1 June 2018
  7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2000b) Full report of the prevalence, incidence, and consequences of violence against women. Accessed 1 June 2018
  8. Cho MJ, Hahm BJ, Suh DW, Hong JP, Bae JN, Kim JK, Lee DW, Cho SJ (2002) Development of a Korean version of the composite international diagnostic interview (K-CIDI). J Korean Neuropsychiatr Assoc 41(1):123–137Google Scholar
  9. Coker AL, Davis KE, Arias I, Desai S, Sanderson M, Brandt HM, Smith PH (2002) Physical and mental health effects of intimate partner violence for men and women. Am J Prev Med 23(4):260–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dillon G, Hussain R, Loxton D, Rahman S (2013) Mental and physical health and intimate partner violence against women: a review of the literature. Int J Family Med 2013:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dykshoorn KL (2014) Trauma-related obsessive-compulsive disorder: a review. Health Psychol Behav Med 2(1):517–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ellsberg M, Jansen HA, Heise L, Watts CH, Garcia-Moreno C (2008) Intimate partner violence and women’s physical and mental health in the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence: an observational study. Lancet 371(9619):1165–1172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Exner-Cortens D, Eckenrode J, Rothman E (2013) Longitudinal associations between teen dating violence victimization and adverse health outcomes. Pediatrics 131(1):71–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Foshee VA, Benefield TS, Ennett ST, Bauman KE, Suchindran C (2004) Longitudinal predictors of serious physical and sexual dating violence victimization during adolescence. Prev Med 39(5):1007–1016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Golding JM (1999) Intimate partner violence as a risk factor for mental disorders: a meta-analysis. J Fam Violence 14(2):99–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gover AR, Jennings WG, Tomsich EA, Park M, Rennison CM (2011a) The influence of childhood maltreatment and self-control on dating violence: a comparison of college students in the United States and South Korea. Violence Vict 26(3):296–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gover AR, Park M, Tomsich EA, Jennings WG (2011b) Dating violence perpetration and victimization among South Korean college students: a focus on gender and childhood maltreatment. J Interpers Violence 26(6):1232–1263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gracia E (2004) Unreported cases of domestic violence against women: towards an epidemiology of social silence, tolerance, and inhibition. J Epidemiol Community Health 58(7):536–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Halpern CT, Spriggs AL, Martin SL, Kupper LL (2009) Patterns of intimate partner violence victimization from adolescence to young adulthood in a nationally representative sample. J Adolesc Health 45(5):508–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Harned MS (2002) A multivariate analysis of risk markers for dating violence victimization. J Interpers Violence 17(11):1179–1197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Haynie DL, Farhat T, Brooks-Russell A, Wang J, Barbieri B, Iannotti RJ (2013) Dating violence perpetration and victimization among U.S. adolescents: prevalence, patterns, and associations with health complaints and substance use. J Adolesc Health 53(2):194–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kessler RC, Price RH, Wortman CB (1985) Social factors in psychopathology: stress, social support, and coping processes. Annu Rev Psychol 36(1):531–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lau M, Nguyen S, Markham C (2018) Sexual dating violence among Asian American adolescents. J Adolescent Health 62(2):S60–S60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lovestad S, Love J, Vaez M, Krantz G (2017) Prevalence of intimate partner violence and its association with symptoms of depression; a cross-sectional study based on a female population sample in Sweden. BMC Public Health 17(1):335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Magdol L, Moffitt TE, Caspi A, Newman DL, Fagan J, Silva PA (1997) Gender differences in partner violence in a birth cohort of 21-year-olds: bridging the gap between clinical and epidemiological approaches. J Consult Clin Psychol 65(1):68–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. McKee SA, Hilton NZ (2017) Co-occurring substance use, PTSD, and IPV victimization: implications for female offender services. Trauma Violence Abuse:1524838017708782Google Scholar
  27. Organization WH (2010) Preventing intimate partner and sexual violence against women: taking action and generating evidenceGoogle Scholar
  28. Rennison CM, Welchans S (2000a) Intimate partner violence. Violence Against Women 1993:98Google Scholar
  29. Rennison CM, Welchans S (2000b) Intimate partner violence. Violence Against Women:98Google Scholar
  30. Robins LN, Wing J, Wittchen HU, Helzer JE, Babor TF, Burke J, Farmer A, Jablenski A, Pickens R, Regier DA et al (1988) The Composite International Diagnostic Interview. An epidemiologic instrument suitable for use in conjunction with different diagnostic systems and in different cultures. Arch Gen Psychiatry 45(12):1069–1067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rubio-Garay F, Lopez-Gonzalez MA, Carrasco MA, Amor PJ (2017) The prevalence of dating violence: a systematic review. Papeles Del Psicologo 38(2):135–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ruiz-Perez I, Rodriguez-Barranco M, Cervilla JA, Ricci-Cabello I (2018) Intimate partner violence and mental disorders: co-occurrence and gender differences in a large cross-sectional population based study in Spain. J Affect Disord 229:69–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Shorey RC, Cornelius TL, Bell KM (2008) A critical review of theoretical frameworks for dating violence: comparing the dating and marital fields. Aggress Violent Behav 13(3):185–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Silverman JG, Raj A, Mucci LA, Hathaway JE (2001) Dating violence against adolescent girls and associated substance use, unhealthy weight control, sexual risk behavior, pregnancy, and suicidality. JAMA 286(5):572–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Temple JR, Freeman DH Jr (2011) Dating violence and substance use among ethnically diverse adolescents. J Interpers Violence 26(4):701–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Trevillion K, Oram S, Feder G, Howard LM (2012) Experiences of domestic violence and mental disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One 7(12):e51740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Vagi KJ, O'Malley Olsen E, Basile KC, Vivolo-Kantor AM (2015) Teen dating violence (physical and sexual) among US high school students: findings from the 2013 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey. JAMA Pediatr 169(5):474–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Walker LE, Browne A (1985) Gender and victimization by intimates. J Pers 53(2):179–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wilson JP, Drozdek B, Turkovic S (2006) Posttraumatic shame and guilt. Trauma Violence Abuse 7(2):122–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. World Health Organization (2012) Understanding and addressing violence against women: Sexual violence. Accessed 1 June 2018
  41. World Health Organization (2013) Global and regional estimates of violence against women: Prevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence. Accessed 2 July 2019
  42. Yakubovich AR, Stöckl H, Murray J, Melendez-Torres G, Steinert JI, Glavin CE, Humphreys DK (2018) Risk and protective factors for intimate partner violence against women: systematic review and meta-analyses of prospective–longitudinal studies. Am J Public Health 108(7):e1–e11CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ji Hyun An
    • 1
  • Carolyn Seungyoun Moon
    • 1
  • Da Eun Kim
    • 1
  • Su Yeon Lee-Tauler
    • 2
  • Hong Jin Jeon
    • 1
  • Seong Jin Cho
    • 3
  • Su Jeong Sung
    • 4
  • Jin Pyo Hong
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, Sungkyunkwan University School of MedicineSamsung Medical CenterSeoulSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of Mental HealthJohns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychiatryGachon University of Medicine and ScienceIncheonSouth Korea
  4. 4.Department of Psychiatry, Hallym University College of MedicineKangdong Sacred HospitalSeoulSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations