Abuse as a risk factor for prenatal depressive symptoms: a meta-analysis

  • Amanda L. Shamblaw
  • Robyn E. Cardy
  • Eric Prost
  • Kate L. Harkness
Review Article


Depression is the most common mental disorder in pregnancy. An important risk factor in the development of prenatal depression is lifetime history of abuse. The current review quantitatively synthesized research on the association between history of abuse and prenatal depressive symptoms using a meta-analytic technique. A total of 3322 articles were identified through electronic searches of the following databases: PsycINFO, PubMed, CINAHL, and EMBASE Cochrane Collaboration databases between the years of 1980 and 2016. All were independently screened against the following inclusion criteria: articles reporting on original data that included measures of prenatal depression and abuse. Data were extracted by the first and second authors. Descriptive analyses were conducted using Excel version 15.32, and all analyses involving effect sizes were conducted using comprehensive meta-analysis (CMA) version 3.0. Seventy articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analyses. Meta-bias detected no publication bias. Abuse had a significant positive relation with prenatal depressive symptoms, with effect sizes in the moderate range for any abuse (\( \overline{r} \) = 0.287), physical abuse (\( \overline{r} \) = 0.271), sexual abuse (\( \overline{r} \) = 0.259), and emotional abuse (\( \overline{r} \) = 0.340; Cohen 1969. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Academic Press, New York). The meta-analyses found a robust relation between abuse and prenatal depressive symptoms holding across a variety of demographic and study design characteristics. These results reinforce the established association between trauma victimization and subsequent psychopathology, extending current knowledge to specifically address the under-studied area of prenatal depression. These findings highlight the need for women who have survived child or adulthood abuse to receive appropriate referral and psychological treatment to mitigate their risk for prenatal depression.


Pregnancy Prenatal Depression Depressive symptoms Abuse Intimate partner violence 



The current study was funded by a grant from the Psychiatry Department at Queen’s University awarded to E. Prost.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Amanda L. Shamblaw declares that she has no conflict of interest. Robyn E. Cardy declares that she has no conflict of interest. Eric Prost declares that he has no conflict of interest. Kate L. Harkness declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.


  1. Abajobir AA, Maravilla JC, Alati R, Najman JM (2016) A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between unintended pregnancy and perinatal depression. J Affect Disord 192:56–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akçalı Aslan P, Aydın N, Yazıcı E, Aksoy AN, Kirkan TS, Daloglu GA (2014) Prevalence of depressive disorders and related factors in women in the first trimester of their pregnancies in Erzurum, Turkey. Int J Soc Psychistr 60:809–817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aktas S, Calik KY (2015) Factors affecting depression during pregnancy and the correlation between social support and pregnancy depression. Iran Red Crescent Me 17:1–9Google Scholar
  4. Ali NS, Azam IS, Ali BS, Tabbusum G, Moin SS (2012) Frequency and associated factors for anxiety and depression in pregnant women: a hospital-based cross-sectional study. The Scientific World Journal, Article ID 653098:1–9Google Scholar
  5. Almeida CP, Cunha FF, Pires EP, Sa E (2013) Common mental disorders in pregnancy in the context of interpartner violence. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs 20: 419–425Google Scholar
  6. Allister L, Lester BM, Carr S, Jing Liu J (2001) The effects of maternal depression on fetal heart rate response to vibroacoustic stimulation. Dev Neuropsychol 20:639–651PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alvarez-Segura M, Garcia-Esteve L, Torres A, Plaza A, Imaz ML, Hermida-Barros L, San L, Burtchen N (2014) Are women with a history of abuse more vulnerable to perinatal depressive symptoms? A systematic review. Arch Women Ment Hlth 17:343–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Anderson L, Sundstrom-Poromaa I, Bixo M, Wulff M, Bondestam K, Astrom M (2003) Point prevalence of psychiatric disorders during the second trimester of pregnancy: a population-based study. Int J Gynecol Obstet 189:148–154Google Scholar
  9. Anderson L, Sundstrom-Poromaa I, Wulff M, Astrom M, Bixo M (2004) Implications of antenatal depression and anxiety for obstetric outcome. Int J Gynecol Obstet 104:467–476Google Scholar
  10. Ashman SB, Dawson G, Panagiotides H, Yamada E, Wilkinson CW (2002) Stress hormone levels of children of depressed mothers. Dev Psychopathol 14:333–349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ayvaz S, Hocaoglu C, Tiryaki A, Ak I (2006) Incidence of postpartum depression in Trabzon province and risk factors at gestation. Turk Psikiyatr Derg 17:243–251Google Scholar
  12. Barrios YV, Gelaye B, Zhong Q, Nicolaidis C, Rondon MB, Garcia PJ, Mascaro Sanchez PA et al (2015) Association of childhood physical and sexual abuse with intimate partner violence, poor general health and depressive symptoms among pregnant women. PLoS One 10(1):e0116609PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Baydoun HA (2009) Intimate partner violence, employment and social support among women seeking elective abortion services in Iowa. Dissertation, University of IowaGoogle Scholar
  14. Beck AT, Ward CH, Mendelson M, Mock J, Erbaugh J (1961) An inventory for measuring depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 4:561–571PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Beck AT, Steer RA, Brown GK (1996) Beck depression inventory—II. San Antonio 78(2) 490–498Google Scholar
  16. Beck AT, Steer RA, Brown GK (2000) BDI—fast screen for medical patients manual. The Psychological Corporation, San AntonioGoogle Scholar
  17. Benedict MI, Paine LI, Paine LA, Brandt D, Stallings R (1999) The association of childhood sexual abuse with depressive symptoms during pregnancy and selected pregnancy outcomes. Child Abuse Negl 23:659–670PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bennice JA, Resick PA (2003) Marital rape: history, research, and practice. Trauma Violence Abuse 4(3):228–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bernstein DP, Ahluvalia T, Pogge D, Handelsman L (1997) Validity of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire in an adolescent psychiatric population. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:340–348PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bernstein DP, Stein JA, Newcomb MD, Walker E, Pogge D, Ahluvalia T, Stokes J, Handelsman L, Medrano M, Desmond D, Zule W (2003) Development and validation of a brief screening version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Child Abuse Negl 27:169–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bernstein M, Phillips T, Zerbe A, McIntyre JA, Brittain K, Petro G, Abrams EJ (2016) Intimate partner violence experienced by HIV-infected pregnant women in South Africa: a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open 6(8):e011999PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bifulco A, Brown GN, Harris T (1994) Childhood experiences of care and abuse (CECA): a retrospective interview measure. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 35:1419–1435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bilszta JL, Tang M, Meyer D, Milgrom J, Ericksen J, Buist AE (2008) Single motherhood versus poor partner relationship: outcomes for antenatal mental health. Aust Nz J Psychiat 42:56–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bonacquisti A, Geller PA, Aaron E (2014) Rates and predictors of prenatal depression in women living with and without HIV. AIDS Care 26:100–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Borenstein M, Hedges LV, Higgins JPT, Rothstein HR (2009) Introduction to meta-analysis. Wiley, HobokenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Brewin CR, Andrews B, Gotlib IH (1993) Psychopathology and early experience: a reappraisal of retrospective reports. Psychol Bull 113:82–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Briere J, Runtz M (1989) The Trauma Symptom Checklist (TSC-33) early data on a new scale. J Interpers Violence 4:151–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Brittain K, Myer L, Koen N, Koopowitz S, Donald KA, Barnett W, Zar HJ, Stein DJ (2015) Risk factors for antenatal depression and associations with infant birth outcomes: results from a South African birth cohort study. Paediatry Perinat Ep 29:505–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Brown JB, Lent B, Schmidt G, Sas G (2000) Application of the Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) and WAST-short in the family practice setting. J Fam Pract 49:896–903PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Brown GW, Craig TKJ, Harris TO, Handley RV, Harvey AL (2007) Development of a retrospective interview measure of parental maltreatment using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse (CECA) instrument -- a lifecourse study of adult chronic depression - 1. J Affect Disord 103(1–3):205–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bublitz MH, Stroud LR (2012) Childhood sexual abuse is associated with cortisol awakening response over pregnancy: preliminary findings. Psychoneuroendocrino 37:425–1430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Buss C, Davis EP, Shahbaba B, Pruessner JC, Head K, Sandman CA (2012) Maternal cortisol over the course of pregnancy and subsequent child amygdala and hippocampus volumes and affective problems. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:E1312–E1319PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Buzi RS, Smith PB, Kozinetz CA, Peskin MF, Wiemann CM (2015) A socioecological framework to assessing depression among pregnant teens. Matern Child Healt J 19:2187–2194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Card NA (2012) Applied meta-analysis for social science research. Guilford Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. Chen LP, Murad MH, Paras ML, Colbenson KM, Sattler AL, Goranson EN, Elamin MB, Seime RJ, Shinozaki G, Prokop LJ, Zirakzadeh A (2010) Sexual abuse and lifetime diagnosis of psychiatric disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis. Mayo Clin Proc 85(7):618–629PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Choi KW, Sikkema KJ, Velloza J, Marais A, Jose C, Stein DJ, Watt MH (2015) Maladaptive coping mediates the influence of childhood trauma on depression and PTSD among pregnant women in South Africa. Arch Women Ment Hlth 18:731–738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cohen J (1969) Statistical power analysis for the behavioural sciences. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  38. Cohen LH, Towbes LC, Flocco R (1988) Effects of induced mood on self-reported life events and perceived and received social support. J Pers Soc Psychol 55:669–674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Çorapçıoğlu A, Aydemir Ö, Yıldız M, Danacı AE, Köroğlu E (1999) Adaptation to Turkish and reliability of structured clinical interview for DSM-IV, axis I disorders [Turkish]. İlaç ve Tedavi Dergisi 12:33–36Google Scholar
  40. Cox JL, Holden JM, Sagovsky R (1987) Detection of postnatal depression. Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Brit J Psychiat 150:782–786PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dayan J, Creveuil C, Dreyfus M, Herlicoviez M, Baleyte JM, O'Keane V (2010) Developmental model of depression applied to prenatal depression: role of present and past life events, past emotional disorders and pregnancy stress. PLoS One 5(9):e12942PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. De Tychey C, Spitz E, Briancon S, Lighezzolo J, Girvan F, Rosati A, Thockler A et al (2005) Pre- and postnatal depression and coping: a comparative approach. J Affect Disorders 85:323–326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Derogatis LR (1992) SCL-90-R: administration, scoring of procedures manual-II for the r(evised) version and other instruments of the psychopathology rating scale series. Clinical Psychometric Research Inc., TowsonGoogle Scholar
  44. Derogatis LR, Lipman RS, Rickels K, Uhlenhuth EH, Covi L (1974) The Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL): a self-report symptom inventory. Syst Res Behav Sci 19:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Devries KM, Mak JY, Child JC, Falder G, Bacchus LJ, Astbury J, Watts CH (2014) Childhood sexual abuse and suicidal behavior: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics 133(5):e1331–e1344PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Dibaba Y, Fantahun M, Hindin MJ (2013) The association of unwanted pregnancy and social support with depressive symptoms in pregnancy: evidence from rural Southwestern Ethiopia. BMC Pregnancy Childb 13:135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Diego MA, Field T, Hernandez-Reif M, Cullen C, Schanberg S, Kuhn C (2004) Prepartum, postpartum, and chronic depression effects on newborns. Psychiatry 67:63–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Dube SR, Felitti VJ, Dong M, Chapman DP, Giles WH, Anda RF (2003) Childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction and the risk of illicit drug use: the adverse childhood experiences study. Pediatrics 111:564–572PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Dunn LL, Oths KS (2004) Prenatal predictors of intimate partner abuse. Jognn 33:54–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. e Couto TC, Brancaglion MYM, Cardoso MN, Protzner AB, Garcia FD, Nicolato R, Aguilar RALP (2015) What is the best tool for screening antenatal depression? J Affect Disorders 178:12–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Eberhard-Gran M, Eskild A, Samuelsen SO, Tambs K (2007) A short matrix-version of the Edinburgh Depression Scale. Acta Psychiatr Scand 116:195–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Edwards B, Galletly C, Semmler-Booth T, Dekker G (2008) Antenatal psychosocial risk factors and depression among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged suburbs in Adelaide, South Australia. Aust Nz J Psychiat 42:45–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. El Marroun H, White TJH, van der Knaap NFJ, Homberg JR, Fernández G, Schoemaker NK, Jaddoe VWV et al (2014) Prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and social responsiveness symptoms of autism: population-based study of young children. Br J Psychiatry 205:95–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Felitti VJ, Anda RF, Nordenberg D, Williamson DF, Spitz AM, Edwards V et al (1998) Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: the adverse childhood experiences (ACE) study. Am J Prev Med 14:245–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Field T, Diego M, Dieter J, Hernandez-Reif M, Schanberg S, Kuhn C, Yando R (2004) Prenatal depression effects on the fetus and the newborn. Infant Behav Dev 27:216–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Flach C, Leese M, Heron J, Evans J, Feder G, Sharp D, Howard LM (2011) Antenatal domestic violence, maternal mental health and subsequent child behaviour: a cohort study. BJOG Int J Obstet Gy 118:1383–1391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Flynn HA, Walton MA, Chermack ST, Cunningham RM, Marcus SM (2007) Brief detection and co-occurrence of violence, depression and alcohol risk in prenatal care settings. Archives Women Ment Hlth 10:155–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Fonseca-Machado MDO, Alves LC, Monteiro JCDS, Stefanello J, Nakano AMS, Haas VJ, Gomes-Sponholz F (2015) Depressive disorder in pregnant Latin women: does intimate partner violence matter? J Clin Nurs 24:1289–1299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Gausia K, Fisher C, Ali M, Oosthuizen J (2009) Antenatal depression and suicidal ideation among rural Bangladeshi women: a community-based study. Archives Women Ment Hlth 12:351–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gentile S (2017) Untreated depression during pregnancy: short- and long-term effects in offspring. A systematic review. Neuroscience 342:154–166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Goldberg D, Cooper B, Eastwood MT, Kedward HB, Shepherd M (1970) A standardised psychiatric interview for use in community surveys. Br J Prev Soc Med 24:18–23PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Green BL (1996) Psychometric review of trauma history questionnaire (self-report). In: Stamm BH, Varra EM (eds) Measurement of stress, trauma and adaptation. Sidran, LuthervilleGoogle Scholar
  63. Harkness KL, Monroe SM (2016) The assessment and measurement of adult life stress: basic premises, operational principles, and design requirements. J Abnorm Psychol 125(5):727–745PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hartley M, Tomlinson M, Greco E, Comulada WS, Stewart J, Le Roux I, Mbewu N (2011) Depressed mood in pregnancy: prevalence and correlates in two Cape Town peri-urban settlements. Reprod Health 8:9PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hedin LW, Janson PO (1999) The invisible wounds: the occurrence of psychological abuse and anxiety compared with previous experience of physical abuse during the childbearing year. J Psychosom Obst Gyn 20:136–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Helzer JE, Robins LN (1988) The diagnostic interview schedule: its development, evolution, and use. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 23:6–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hermann C, Buss U, Snaith RP (1995) Hospital anxiety and depression scale—German version (HADS-D). Hans Huber, BernGoogle Scholar
  68. van Heyningen T, Myer L, Onah M, Tomlinson M, Field S, Honikman S (2016) Antenatal depression and adversity in urban South Africa. J Affect Disorders 203:121–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hoffman S, Hatch MC (2000) Depressive symptomatology during pregnancy: evidence for an association with decreased fetal growth in pregnancies of lower social class women. Health Psychol 19:535–543PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Holden KB, McKenzie R, Pruitt MV, Aaron MK, Hall MS (2012) Depressive symptoms, substance abuse, and intimate partner violence among pregnant women of diverse ethnicities. J Health Care Poor U 23:226–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Hudson WW, McIntosh SR (1981) The assessment of spouse of abuse: two quantifiable dimensions. J Marriage Fam 4:873–888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hunter JE, Schmidt FL (1990) Dichotomization of continuous variables: the implications for meta-analysis. Journal Appl Psychol 75:334–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Imran N, Haider II (2010) Screening of antenatal depression in Pakistan: risk factors and effects on obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Asia Pac Psychiatry 2:26–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Infurna MR, Reichl C, Parzer P, Schimmenti A, Bifulco A, Kaess M (2016) Associations between depression and specific childhood experiences of abuse and neglect: a meta-analysis. J Affect Disorders 190:47–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Jackson FM, Hogue CR, Phillips MT (2004) The development of a race and gender-specific stress measure for African-American women: Jackson, Hogue, Phillips contextualized stress measure. Ethn Dis 15:594–600Google Scholar
  76. Jackson FM, Rowley DL, Owens TC (2012) Contextualized stress, global stress, and depression in well-educated, pregnant, African-American women. Womens Health Issues 22(3):e329–e336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Jeong HG, Lim JS, Lee MS, Kim SH, Jung IK, Joe SH (2013) The association of psychosocial factors and obstetric history with depression in pregnant women: focus on the role of emotional support. Gen Hosp Psychiat 35:354–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Jesse DE, Seaver W, Wallace DC (2003) Maternal psychosocial risks predict preterm birth in a group of women from Appalachia. Midwifery 19:191–202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Jundt K, Haertl K, Knobbe A, Kaestner R, Friese K, Peschers UM (2009) Pregnant women after physical and sexual abuse in Germany. Gynecol Obstet Inves 68:82–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Karaçam Z, Ançel G (2009) Depression, anxiety and influencing factors in pregnancy: a study in a Turkish population. Midwifery 25:344–356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kelly RH, Russo J, Katon W (2001) Somatic complaints among pregnant women cared for in obstetrics: normal pregnancy or depressive and anxiety symptom amplification revisited? Gen Hosp Psychiat 23(3):107–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kira IA, Lewandowski L, Templin T, Ramaswamy V, Ozkan B, Mohanesh J (2008) Measuring cumulative trauma dose, types, and profiles using a development-based taxonomy of traumas. Traumatology 14:62–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB (2001) The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. J Gen Intern Med 16:606–613PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Kwiatkowski L (2016) Marital sexual violence, structural vulnerability, and misplaced responsibility in northern Vietnam. In: Yllo K, Torres MG (eds) Marital rape: consent, marriage, and social change in global context. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 55–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lara MA, Natera-Rey G, Berenzon S, Juárez-García F, Villatoro-Velázquez JA, Nieto L, Medina-Mora ME (2014) Intimate partner violence and depressive symptoms in pregnant Mexican women: national survey results. Sex Transm Dis 22:23Google Scholar
  86. Lesser J, Koniak-Griffin D (2000) The impact of physical or sexual abuse on chronic depression in adolescent mothers. J Pediatr Nurs 15:378–387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lev-Wiesel R, Daphna-Tekoah S (2010) The role of peripartum dissociation as a predictor of posttraumatic stress symptoms following childbirth in Israeli Jewish women. J Trauma Dissociatio 11:266–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Lewis JB, Sullivan TP, Angley M, Callands T, Divney AA, Magriples U, Gordon DM, Kershaw TS (2017) Psychological and relational correlates of intimate partner violence profiles among pregnant adolescent couples. Aggress Behav 43:26–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Lipsey MW, Wilson DB (2001) Practical meta-analysis, vol 49. Sage Publications, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  90. Littleton H (2015) Sexual victimization and somatic complaints in pregnancy: examination of depression as a mediator. Womens Health Issues 25:696–702PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Lovisi GM, Lopez JRR, Coutinho ESF, Patel V (2005) Poverty, violence and depression during pregnancy: a survey of mothers attending a public hospital in Brazil. Psychol Med 35:1485–1492PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Lydsdottir LB, Howard LM, Olafsdottir H, Thome M, Tyrfingsson P, Sigurdsson JF (2014) The mental health characteristics of pregnant women with depressive symptoms identified by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. J Clin Psychiat 75:393–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Mahenge B, Likindikoki S, Stöckl H, Mbwambo J (2013) Intimate partner violence during pregnancy and associated mental health symptoms among pregnant women in Tanzania: a cross-sectional study. BJOG Int J Obstet Gy 120:940–947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Marshall LL (1992) Development of the severity of violence against women scales. J Fam Violence 7:103–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Martin SL, Li Y, Casanueva C, Harris-Britt A, Kupper LL, Cloutier S (2006) Intimate partner violence and women's depression before and during pregnancy. Violence Against Wom 12:221–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Matthey S, Phillips J, White T, Glossop P, Hopper U, Panasetis P, Petridis A et al (2004) Routine psychosocial assessment of women in the antenatal period: frequency of risk factors and implications for clinical services. Arch Womens Ment Health 7:223229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. McDonnell CG, Valentino K (2016) Intergenerational effects of childhood trauma: evaluating pathways among maternal ACEs, perinatal depressive symptoms, and infant outcomes. Child maltreatment 21:317–326CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. McFarlane J, Parker B, Soeken K, Bullock L (1992) Assessing for abuse during pregnancy: severity and frequency of injuries and associated entry into prenatal care. Jama 267:3176–3178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Meltzer-Brody S, Bledsoe-Mansori SE, Johnson N, Killian C, Hamer RM, Jackson C, Wessel J et al (2013) A prospective study of perinatal depression and trauma history in pregnant minority adolescents. Am J Obstet Gynecol 208(3):211–2e1PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Melville JL, Gavin A, Guo Y, Fan MY, Katon WJ (2010) Depressive disorders during pregnancy: prevalence and risk factors in a large urban sample. Obstet Gynecol 116:1064–1070PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Menjívar C (2016) Normalizing suffering, robadas, coercive power, and marital unions among Ladinas in Eastern Guatemala. In: Yllo K, Torres MG (eds) Marital rape: consent, marriage and social change in global context. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 75–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Miszkurka M, Zunzunegui MV, Goulet L (2012) Immigrant status, antenatal depressive symptoms, and frequency and source of violence: what's the relationship? Archives Women Ment Hlth 15:387–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG (2009) Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Ann Intern Med 151:264–269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Moncuso RA, Schetter CD, Rini CM, Roesch SC, Hobel CJ (2004) Maternal prenatal anxiety and corticotropin-realising hormone associated with timing of delivery. Psychosom Med 66:762–769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Moore MT, Fresco DM (2012) Depressive realism: a meta-analytic review. Clin Psychol Rev 32:496–509PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Nakano Y, Oshima M, Sugiura-Ogasawara M, Aoki K, Kitamura T, Furukawa TA (2004) Psychosocial predictors of successful delivery after unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortions: a cohort study. Acta Psychiat Scand 109:440–446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Nanni V, Uher R, Danese A (2012) Childhood maltreatment predicts unfavorable course of illness and treatment outcome in depression: a meta-analysis. Am J Psychiat 169:141–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Nasreen HE, Kabir ZN, Forsell Y, Edhborg M (2011) Prevalence and associated factors of depressive and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy: a population based study in rural Bangladesh. BMC Womens Health 11:22PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Natan BM, Ari BG, Bader T, Hallak M (2012) Universal screening for domestic violence in a department of obstetrics and gynaecology: a patient and care perspective. Int Nurs Rev 59:108–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Orwin RG, Vevea JL (2009) Evaluating coding decisions. Russel Sage Foundation, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  111. Pawlby S, Hay DF, Sharp D, Waters CS, O’Keane V (2009) Antenatal depression predicts depression in adolescent offspring: prospective longitudinal community-based study. J Affect Disord 113:236–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Peltzer K, Rodriguez VJ, Jones D (2016) Prevalence of prenatal depression and associated factors among HIV-positive women in primary care in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. SAHARA-J- J Soc Asp H 13:60–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Plant DT, Barker ED, Waters CS, Pawlby S, Pariante CM (2013) Intergenerational transmission of maltreatment and psychopathology: the role of antenatal depression. Psychol Med 43:519–528PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Ports KA, Ford DC, Merrick MT (2016) Adverse childhood experiences and sexual victimization in adulthood. Child Abuse Negl 51:313–322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Radloff LS (1977) The CES-D scale: a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. App Psych Meas 1:385–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Records K, Rice M (2007) Psychosocial correlates of depression symptoms during the third trimester of pregnancy. Jognn 36:231–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Rees SJ, Tol W, Mohammad M, Tay AK, Tam N, Dos Reis N, Da Costa C et al (2016) A high-risk group of pregnant women with elevated levels of conflict-related trauma, intimate partner violence, symptoms of depression and other forms of mental distress in post-conflict Timor-Leste. Transl Psychiat 6(2):e725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Rey GN, García FJ, Sainz MT (2004) Validez factorial de una escala de violencia hacia la pareja en una muestra nacional mexicana. Salud mental 27:31–38Google Scholar
  119. Rich-Edwards JW, James-Todd T, Mohllajee A, Kleinman K, Burke A, Gillman MW, Wright RJ (2011) Lifetime maternal experiences of abuse and risk of pre-natal depression in two demographically distinct populations in Boston. Intj Epidemiol dyq247.
  120. Rodriguez MA, Heilemann MV, Fielder E, Ang A, Nevarez F, Mangione CM (2008) Intimate partner violence, depression, and PTSD among pregnant Latina women. Ann Fam Med 6:44–52PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Romano E, Zoccolillo M, Paquette D (2006) Histories of child maltreatment and psychiatric disorder in pregnant adolescents. J Am Acad Child Psyc 45:329–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Roodman AA, Clum GA (2001) Revictimization rates and method variance: a meta-analysis. Clin Psychol Rev 21:183–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Rosenthal R (1979) The “file drawer problem” and tolerance for null results. Psychol Bull 86:638–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Rosenthal MC (1994) The fugitive literature. In: Cooper H, Hedges LV (eds) The handbook of research synthesis. Russel Sage Foundation, New York, pp 85–94Google Scholar
  125. Ross LE, Dennis CL (2009) The prevalence of postpartum depression among women with substance use, an abuse history, or chronic illness: a systematic review. J Women's Health 18:475–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Ross LE, Sellers EM, Gilbert Evans SE, Romach MK (2004) Mood changes during pregnancy and the postpartum period: development of a biopsychosocial model. Acta Psychiatr Scand 109:457–466PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Rotheram-Borus MJ, Tomlinson M, Le Roux I, Stein JA (2015) Alcohol use, partner violence, and depression: a cluster randomized controlled trial among urban South African mothers over 3 years. Am J Prev Med 49:715–725PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Rush AJ, Giles DE, Schlesser MA, Fulton CL, Weissenburger J, Burns C (1986) The inventory for depressive symptomatology (IDS): preliminary findings. Psychiatry Res 18:65–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Sandman CA, Glynn L, Schetter CD, Wadhwa P, Garite T, Chicz-DeMet A, Hobel C (2006) Elevated maternal cortisol early in pregnancy predicts third trimester levels of placental corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH): priming the placental clock. Peptides 27:1457–1463PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Scheid JM, Holzman CB, Jones N, Friderici KH, Nummy KA, Symonds LL, Sikorskii MK et al (2007) Depressive symptoms in mid-pregnancy, lifetime stressors and the 5-HTTLPR genotype. Genes Brain Behav 6:453–464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Schraiber L, Latorre M, França I Jr, Segri NJ, D'Oliveira AF (2010) Validity of the WHO VAW study instrument for estimating gender-based violence against women. Rev Saúde Pública 44:658–666PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Scott-Storey K (2011) Cumulative abuse: do things add up? An evaluation of the conceptualization, operationalization, and methodological approaches in the study of the phenomenon of cumulative abuse. Trauma Violence Abuse 12:135–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Seng JS, Sperlich M, Low LK (2008) Mental health, demographic, and risk behavior profiles of pregnant survivors of childhood and adult abuse. J Midwifery Wom Heal 53:511–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Shah SMA, Bowen A, Afridi I, Nowshad G, Muhajarine N (2011) Prevalence of antenatal depression: comparison between Pakistani and Canadian women. J Pak Med Assoc 61:242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Sheehan DV, Lecrubier Y, Sheehan KH, Amorim P, Janavs J, Weiller E, Hergueta T, Baker R, Dunbar GC (1998) The Mini-international neuropsychiatric interview (M.I.N.I.): the development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. J Clin Psychiatry 59:22–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Shidhaye PR, Giri PA (2014) Maternal depression: a hidden burden in developing countries. Ann Med Health Sci Res 4:463–465PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Shneyderman Y, Kiely M (2013) Intimate partner violence during pregnancy: victim or perpetrator? Does it make a difference? BJOG- Int J Obstet Gy 120:1375–1385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Sidebottom AC, Hellerstedt WL, Harrison PA, Hennrikus D (2014) An examination of prenatal and postpartum depressive symptoms among women served by urban community health centers. Arch Women Ment Hlth 17:27–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Smith PH, Earp JA, DeVellis R (1995) Measuring battering: development of the women’s experience with battering (WEB) scale. Womens Health 1:273–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JB (1999) Validation and utility of a self-report version of PRIME-MD: the PHQ primary care study. Primary care evaluation of mental disorders. Patient health questionnaire. JAMA 282:1737–1744PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Stevens-Simon C, McAnarney ER (1994) Childhood victimization: relationship to adolescent pregnancy outcome. Child Abuse Negl 18:569–575PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Stowe ZN, Hostetter AL, Newport DJ (2005) The onset of postpartum depression: implications for clinical screening obstetrical and primary case. Am J Obstet Gynecol 192:522–526PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Straus MA (1990) Measuring intrafamily conflict and violence: the Conflict Tactics (CT) Scale. M.AGoogle Scholar
  144. Straus MA, Douglas EM (2004) A short form of the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales, and typologies for severity and mutuality. Violence Vict 19:507–520PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Straus MA, Hamby S (1996) Revised Conflict Tactic Scale (CTS2): development and preliminary psychometric data. J Fam Issues 17:283–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Sugiura-Ogasawara M, Furukawa TA, Nakano Y, Hori S, Aoki K, Kitamura T (2002) Depression as a potential causal factor in subsequent miscarriage in recurrent spontaneous aborters. Hum Reprod 17:2580–2584PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Swahnberg IK, Wijma B (2003) The NorVold Abuse Questionnaire (NorAQ). Eur J Pub Health 13:361–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Thananowan N, Heidrich SM (2008) Intimate partner violence among pregnant Thai women. Violence Against Wom 14:509–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Thompson J, Canterino JC, Feld SM, Stumpf PG, Kuo Y, Harrigan JT (2000) Risk factors for domestic violence in pregnant women. Prim Care Update Ob Gyns 7:138–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Tinglöf S, Högberg U, Lundell IW, Svanberg AS (2015) Exposure to violence among women with unwanted pregnancies and the association with post-traumatic stress disorder, symptoms of anxiety and depression. Sex Reprod Healthc 6:50–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Todahl J, Walters E (2011) Universal screening for intimate partner violence: a systematic review. J Marital Fam Ther 37:355–369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Tolman RM (1989) The development of a measure of psychological maltreatment of women by their male partners. Violence Vict 4:159–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Trotter JL, Bogat GA, Levendosky AA (2004) Risk and protective factors for pregnant women experiencing psychological abuse. J Emotional Abuse 4(2):53–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Valentine JM, Rodriguez MA, Lapeyrouse LM, Zhang M (2011) Recent intimate partner violence as a prenatal predictor of maternal depression in the first year postpartum among Latinas. Arch Women Ment Hlth 14:135–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Van Parys AS, Deschepper E, Michielsen K, Galle A, Roelens K, Temmerman M, Verstraelen H (2015) Intimate partner violence and psychosocial health, a cross-sectional study in a pregnant population. BMC Pregnancy Childb 15:278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Varma D, Chandra PS, Thomas T, Carey MP (2007) Intimate partner violence and sexual coercion among pregnant women in India: relationship with depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. J Affect Disorders 102:227–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Vaz Serra A (1994) IACLIDE—Inventário clínico da depressão. Edições Psiquiatria Clínica, CoimbraGoogle Scholar
  158. Verreault N, Da Costa D, Marchand A, Ireland K, Dritsa M, Khalifé S (2014) Rates and risk factors associated with depressive symptoms during pregnancy and with postpartum onset. J Psychosom Obstet Gynacecol 35:84–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Walsh K, Basu A, Werner E, Lee S, Feng T, Osborne LM, Rainford A, Gilchrist M, Monk C (2016) Associations among child abuse, depression, and interleukin-6 in pregnant adolescents: paradoxical findings. Psychosom Med 78:920–930PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Wangel AM, Ryding EL, Schei B, Östman M, Lukasse M, Bidens Study Group (2016) Emotional, physical, and sexual abuse and the association with symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress in a multi-ethnic pregnant population in southern Sweden. Sex Reprod Healthc 9:7–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Wittchen HU, Robins LN, Cottler LB, Sartorius N, Burke JD, Regier D (1991) Cross-cultural feasibility, reliability and sources of variance of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The multicentre WHO/ADAMHA field trials. Br J Psychiatry 159:645–653PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Wolfe J, Kimerling R (1997) Gender issues in the assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder. In: Wilson JP, Keane TM (eds) Assessing psychological trauma and PTSD. Guilford Press, New York, pp 192–238Google Scholar
  163. World Health Organization (2007) Maternal mental health and child health and development in resource-constrained settings: report of a UNFPA/WHO international expert meeting: the interface between reproductive health and mental health. WHO Document Production Services, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  164. World Health Organization (2017) Maternal mental health. http://wwwwhoint/mental_health/maternal-child/maternal_mental_health/en/. Accessed 23 November 2017
  165. Yampolsky L, Lev-Wiesel R, Ben-Zion IZ (2010) Child sexual abuse: is it a risk factor for pregnancy? J Adv Nurs 66:2025–2037PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Zhong QY, Wells A, Rondon MB, Williams MA, Barrios YV, Sanchez SE, Gelaye B (2016) Childhood abuse and suicidal ideation in a cohort of pregnant Peruvian women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 215(4):501–5e1PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Zigmond AS, Snaith RP (1983) The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta Psychiatr Scand 67:361–370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada

Personalised recommendations