Improving help-seeking for postnatal depression and anxiety: a cluster randomised controlled trial of motivational interviewing
- 742 Downloads
Low uptake of treatment by women with symptoms of postnatal depression and anxiety is consistently reported. This study examined whether a brief motivational interviewing (MI) intervention delivered by Maternal and Child Health Nurses (MCHNs) during routine emotional health assessments improves help-seeking following childbirth. In this parallel two-group cluster randomised controlled trial, MCHNs delivered a MI intervention (‘PRIMER’, n = 20) or Routine Care (n = 20) at women’s (n = 541) postnatal consultations. The primary outcome was help-seeking over the 12 months post-birth. Other outcomes were emotional distress measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-Revised and Depression Anxiety Stress Scales, and barriers to help-seeking obtained by self-report via a checklist of potential barriers that was presented to women to select from if applicable. 27.4% of the sample experienced emotional distress over the 12 months post-birth. When comparing women who experienced emotional distress with those who did not, odds of seeking help were 4.0 times higher for the MI condition than Routine Care (p = .004). Of the women who sought help from a psychologist, 47.6% in the MI condition attended 6 + sessions versus 20.0% in Routine Care (numbers too small for reliable significance test). There was a non-significant trend of lower depression, anxiety and stress in the MI condition. Three risk factors for postnatal depression predicted help-seeking: antenatal anxiety (OR = 2.8, p = .002), depression history (OR = 2.5, p = .002) and self-esteem (OR = 0.7, p = .04). Common barriers to seeking help were thinking that one would or should be able to manage without help (endorsed by 11.1%). Treatment uptake for postnatal distress can be increased with MI. Training MCHNs in MI was feasible and valued. Given the devastating effects of depression, further research is needed to ascertain whether MI can improve mental health outcomes. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12611000635965), 22 June 2011.
KeywordsMotivational interviewing Postnatal depression Postnatal anxiety Cluster randomised controlled trial
This project has been made possible with funding from Australian Rotary Health.
We would like to acknowledge the support of the Victoria State Government Department of Education and Early Childhood Development, particularly the involvement of Banyule, Whittlesea and Moonee Valley Maternal and Child Health Services in this project.
Dr. Rochelle Cairns provided assistance in developing the MI training workshop and accompanying intervention manual. Dr. Sofia Rallis and Dr. Rochelle Cairns conducted the training workshops.
We would also like to acknowledge the Parent-Infant Research Institute team and in particular, Ms. Sofia Galgut, for conducting the follow-up telephone calls.
We would like to thank Ms. Rachel Sore for her statistical advice.
We thank the women who generously gave their time to participate in this study.
Compliance with ethical standards
Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest
This study was funded by Australian Rotary Health.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research ethics committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable standards.
Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the Austin Health Human Research Ethics Committee on 16 February, 2011 (Project no. 04180).
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in this study.
- Beck AT, Steer RA, Brown GK (1996) Manual for the BDI-II. The Psychological Corporation, San AntonioGoogle Scholar
- Gavin N, Meltzer-Brody S, Glover V, Gaynes B (2015) Is population-based identification of perinatal depression and anxiety desirable? A public health perspective on the perinatal depression care continuum. In: Milgrom J, Gemmill A (eds) Identifying perinatal depression and anxiety: evidence-based practice in screening, psychosocial assessment and management. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
- Grote NK, Swartz HA, Geibel SL, Zuckoff A, Houck PR, Frank E (2009) A randomized controlled trial of culturally relevant, brief interpersonal psychotherapy for perinatal depression. Psychiatr Serv 60:313-321Google Scholar
- Lovibond SH, Lovibond PF (1995) Manual for the depression anxiety stress scales. Psychology Foundation, SydneyGoogle Scholar
- Milgrom J, McCloud P (1996) Parenting stress and postnatal depression. Stress Med 12:177–186. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1099-1700(199607)12:3<177::aid-smi699>3.0.co;2-w CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Milgrom J, Holt C, Gemmill A, Ericksen J, Leigh B, Buist A, Schembri C (2011) Treating postnatal depressive symptoms in primary care: a randomised controlled trial of GP management, with and without adjunctive counselling. BMC Psychiatry 11:–95Google Scholar
- Miller WR, Rollnick S (2002) Motivational interviewing: preparing people for change, 2nd edn. The Guilford Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Murray L, Arteche A, Fearon P, Halligan S, Croudace T, Cooper PJ (2010) The effects of maternal postnatal depression and child sex on academic performance at age 16 years: a developmental approach. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 51:1150–1159. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02259.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Murray L, Fearon P, Cooper PJ (2015) Postnatal depression, mother–infant interactions, and child development: prospects for screening and treatment. In: Milgrom J, Gemmill AW (eds) Identifying perinatal depression and anxiety: evidence-based practice in screening, psychosocial assessment and management. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, pp 139–164Google Scholar