Archives of Women's Mental Health

, Volume 20, Issue 4, pp 477–486 | Cite as

Early life maltreatment but not lifetime depression predicts insecure attachment in women

  • Anna-Lena Zietlow
  • Nora Nonnenmacher
  • Corinna Reck
  • Mitho Mueller
  • Sabine C. Herpertz
  • Corinne Neukel
  • Anna Fuchs
  • Felix Bermpohl
  • Daniel Fuehrer
  • Dorothea Kluczniok
  • Catherine Hindi Attar
  • Charlotte Jaite
  • Katja Dittrich
  • Katja Boedeker
Original Article


Early life maltreatment (ELM) poses a risk for the development of insecure attachment and depression over the life span, depending on the type of maltreatment (physical, sexual, emotional, neglect) and its severity. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of ELM and lifetime depression on adult insecure attachment in a female sample (N = 188), consisting of n = 81 women with ELM and n = 107 without ELM. Women with ELM reported significantly higher scores on insecure attachment than women without ELM. A significant interaction effect for ELM × lifetime depression was found: Contradictory to the hypotheses, women with ELM but without lifetime depression scored highest on avoidant attachment, differing significantly from women with ELM and lifetime depression, even though the severity of ELM was higher among women with ELM and lifetime depression and they experienced significantly more severe neglect and sexual abuse, but not physical or emotional abuse. Regression analyses revealed that ELM was the only predictor of avoidant attachment, explaining 15.5% of the variance. Results underline the strong influence of ELM on adult attachment and are of special importance for prevention and intervention programs.


Early life maltreatment Lifetime depression Insecure attachment Adult attachment 



We would like to thank all the women for participating in our study. This work was supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF; grant number: 01KR1207C; and the German Research Foundation (DFG; grant number: BE2611/2-1).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna-Lena Zietlow
    • 1
  • Nora Nonnenmacher
    • 2
  • Corinna Reck
    • 3
  • Mitho Mueller
    • 3
  • Sabine C. Herpertz
    • 2
  • Corinne Neukel
    • 2
  • Anna Fuchs
    • 4
  • Felix Bermpohl
    • 5
  • Daniel Fuehrer
    • 6
  • Dorothea Kluczniok
    • 5
  • Catherine Hindi Attar
    • 5
  • Charlotte Jaite
    • 6
  • Katja Dittrich
    • 6
  • Katja Boedeker
    • 6
  1. 1.Center for Psychosocial Medicine, Institute of Medical PsychologyHeidelberg University HospitalHeidelbergGermany
  2. 2.Center for Psychosocial Medicine, General PsychiatryHeidelberg University HospitalHeidelbergGermany
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyLudwig-Maximilians-Universität MünchenMunichGermany
  4. 4.Center for Psychosocial Medicine, Department of Child and Adolescent PsychiatryHeidelberg University HospitalHeidelbergGermany
  5. 5.Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité Campus MitteCharité – Universitätsmedizin BerlinBerlinGermany
  6. 6.Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, Charité Campus VirchowCharité – Universitätsmedizin BerlinBerlinGermany

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